Thursday, October 22, 2015

Subject Heading List : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science

Subject Heading

Subject Heading List  Subject Heading List is the printed or published list of subject headings which may be produced from the subject authority file maintained by an organization or individual.

Subject heading list contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval. Cross references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

Subject heading lists may have provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity.

Two popular subject heading lists are Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Sears List of Subject Headings.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service

Hotels

URI
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85062487

Variants
Hotels, taverns, etc
Inns

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Caravansaries
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Lodging-houses
Motels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Boardinghouses
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification
GT3770-GT3896
NA7800-NA7850
TX901-TX946

Subject headings, like access points based on author names and titles, serve the dual function of location and collocation. Subject heading lists are used by library catalogers to aid them in their choice of appropriate subject headings and to achieve uniformity. Subject Headings and thesauri are one of the two methods used to facilitate subject access to library materials. The other is library classification. Classification organizes knowledge and library materials into a systematic order according to their subject content, while subject headings provide access to documents through vocabulary terms. Subject Headings or Thesauri can assign multiple terms to the same document, but in classification each document can only be placed in one class.

In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about. 

Used for: Subject Heading Scheme, Subject Headings Scheme, Subject Headings List, Subject Scheme, Subject Heading Schedule




This new encyclopedic entry in the “Glossary of Library & Information Science” of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions?
  • What is Subject Heading List?
  • Where Subject Heading List is applied?
  • What is vocabulary control and why is it important?
  • How Subject Heading List assist library users and staff?
  • What are the alternatives to Subject Heading?
  • What are the popular Subject Heading Lists?

All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:

Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Subject Heading. You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Subject Heading

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.



At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.


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See also related posts in following Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog Categories (Labels):

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Library Cataloging Research

RDA Bibliography
RDA Bibliography


This new RDA Blog post discusses status and availability of researches on library descriptive cataloging with reference to Masters, M.Phil. and Ph.D. thesis and dissertations on library cataloging which may be available in print and/or online.

It argues that with the emergence of Resource Description & Access (RDA), as the successor of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2), it becomes necessary to do quality research works on the descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2 and evaluating its significance and impact on librarianship and library services.

It seeks suggestions for potential topics on which researches should be carried out in Library Descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2

#RDABLOG #RDABIBLIOGRAPHY #RDA #CATALOGING

Friday, October 16, 2015

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Information Access Through The Subject

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Most of the users approach information sources not with names, who might have been responsible for their creation, but with a question that requires an answer, or a topic for study. Users seek documents or information on a particular subject. In order to make provision for this common approach, it is necessary to arrange documents on the shelf and entries in catalogs in such a way that items on a specific subject can be retrieved. In other words, it may be said that subject approach is very important in the access to and exploitation of documents in a library. Before we actually discuss the methods developed by librarians and information workers to meet this requirement, let us consider the question "What is a subject?" while talking about a subject we normally refer to a given area of knowledge, or the contents of a document of a given scope. A subject may be defined by:

a. an area of interest, 

b. an area in which an individual researcher or professional works, 

c. an area in which an individual writes, and 

d. an area of knowledge being studied.

Let us consider a well known area such as Physics. To understand this subject, let us first ask a student studying this subject, as to what constitutes this subject. Also, let us find out the definition of physics from a few dictionaries and encyclopedias. We may come across different definitions and different boundaries for this subject area alone. We may also find that different users and separate pieces of literature hold different perspectives on a subject. The points of divergence in perspective can be categorized into two types:

a. different labels (names) that are used for a subject, and 

b. different concepts about scope and associations with other subjects that are evident. 

Essentially, these factors form the basis of problems in identifying a satisfactory subject approach and the need to have a vast array of tools to explain the subject approach to knowledge or information. It is possible and convenient to select a particular view point on the scope, associations and labels for subjects which coincides with the way in which subjects are handled in the literature. In libraries, most devices for the organisation of knowledge concern themselves primarily with organizing documents, based on literary warrant. This approach is known as pragmatic approach. Collection dependency of the resulting tool. There is retrieval devices, and that is to build schemes, which depend upon theoretical views about the nature and structure of knowledge. This theoretical approach is important in determining the nature of subject devices required for the organisation of knowledge. A subject device normally seeks to fulfill two functions:

a. to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject; and 

b. to show what a library or information center has on related subjects. 

Different devices for the organisation of knowledge place different emphasis based on the relative importance of these two functions. However, the two functions are inter-dependent and neither can be excluded without impairing the effectiveness of the other.

Classification schemes as well as alphabetical indexing systems attempt to fulfill both the basic functions mentioned earlier. The distinction arises from different emphasis. Classification schemes specialize in showing network of subjects and displaying relationships between subjects while alphabetical indexing systems specialize in establishing specific labels for subjects and providing direct access to individual subjects. Also, it may be stated here that author and title catalogs enable the user to locate documents of which the user knows either the name of the author or title of the documents, while subject catalog enable him to find out documents of his interest even without knowing any of these items of information.

The subject approach may totally be alphabetical or it might be classified supported by alphabetical indexes. 

In classified system the arrangement of library materials is done using a classification scheme. The classification scheme provides a library with a systematic arrangement of materials according to their subject content. The second, and the most commonly used method, is indexing the library materials through the use of a subject heading list or controlled vocabulary. This method provides access to the intellectual content of a library. Classification provides a logical approach to the arrangement of documentary materials, where as subject cataloging provides alphabetic approach to the concepts discussed in these materials. These two methods offer two alternative modes of access to library collection.

This new post of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions:
  • What are the Subject Approach to Information in Libraries
  • How library users seek information on a particular subject?
  • How library materials are arranged on shelves and catalogs to be located by subject?
  • What is a subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on related subjects?
  • How classification schemes are used for subject approaches?
  • How subject headings are used for subject approaches?

Source: (Chapter 1) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 

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Thursday, October 15, 2015

RDA CATALOGING NEWS

RDA CATALOGING NEWS


http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/10/rda-cataloging-news.html


RDA Cataloging News is an initiative by RDA Blog. It combines the entries of RDA Bibliography and also items on Subject Cataloging. Please suggest entries to be included in RDA Cataloging News (preferably through RDA Cataloging - Google+ Community on Resource Description and Access (RDA) or by any other means of your wish).

Contents appear under following headings:
  • News
  • Events / Workshops / Seminars / Conferences / Training / Etc.
  • Web / Blog Posts
  • Articles
  • Books
  • Presentations
  • Videos
  • Thesis
  • Reviews
Do you think this tedious and time consuming initiative of compiling a newsletter of RDA Cataloging News should be continued? Will you be helping me in this compilation by suggesting information to be included here? What do you think about RDA Blog, is this helpful? Please provide us your valuable feedback in the RDA Blog Guest Book; selected detailed feedback will be published on RDA Blog Testimonials


#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES #RDABLOG #CATALOGING #RDA #MARC21

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

022 - International Standard Serial Number (R)

MARC 21

First Indicator
Level of international interest
# - No level specified
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
$a - International Standard Serial Number (NR)
$l - ISSN-L (NR)
$m - Canceled ISSN-L (R)
$y - Incorrect ISSN (R) 
$z - Canceled ISSN (R)
$2 - Source (NR)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R) 

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), a unique identification number assigned to a continuing resource, and/or any incorrect or canceled ISSN.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

First Indicator - Level of international interest
Value that specifies whether the continuing resource is of international interest or of local or ephemeral interest only.
# - No level specified
Level of international interest is unknown or not specified. Used by all institutions other than the ISSN Centers when recording the ISSN from an issue or from a bibliography.
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
Of international interest, thus a full record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for all continuing resources for which individual ISSN Centers receive ISSN requests from abstracting and indexing services or other ISSN Network centers. Also used for all other continuing resources that are not within the scope defined for value 1. This value may be input only by the ISSN Centers.
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Not of international interest, thus an abbreviated record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for continuing resources judged to be of local or ephemeral interest. ISSN Centers have defined publications of local or ephemeral interest as those in which interest is likely to be limited to a certain geographic area, e.g., local newspapers, or certain span of time, e.g., calendars of events. In case of doubt, value 0 is used. This value may only be input by the ISSN Centers.
Second Indicator - Undefined
Undefined and contains a blank (#).

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - International Standard Serial Number
Valid ISSN for the continuing resource. ISSN may be generated for display.
022##$a0376-4583
$l - ISSN-L
ISSN that links together various media versions of a continuing resource. ISSN-L may be generated for display.
0220#$a1234-1231$l1234-1231
$m - Canceled ISSN-L
Canceled ISSN-L that has been associated with the resource. Each canceled ISSN-L is contained in a separate subfield $m. ISSN-L (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a1560-1560$l1234-1231$m1560-1560
$y - Incorrect ISSN
Incorrect ISSN that has been associated with the continuing resource. Each incorrect ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $y. A canceled ISSN is contained in subfield $z.
ISSN (incorrect) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0046-225X$y0046-2254
$z - Canceled ISSN
Canceled ISSN that is associated with the continuing resource. Each canceled ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $z.
ISSN (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0145-0808$z0361-7106
0220#$z0027-3473
$2 - Source
ISSN Center responsible for assigning and maintaining ISSNs and related data.
Code from: ISSN National Centres code list online at: www.issn.org, National Centres.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

ISSN Structure - ISSN is an agency-assigned data element. ISSNs are assigned to continuing resource publications by national centers under the auspices of the ISSN Network. An ISSN consists of eight digits comprising two groups of four digits each, separated by a hyphen. The eighth digit is a check digit used as a computer validity check; it consists of a number between 0 and 9 or an uppercase X (for the arabic numeral 10). A description of the ISSN structure and the procedure for validation of the ISSN by calculating the check digit is in International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN) (ISO 3297).
Punctuation - Field 022 does not end with a period.
Display Constants
ISSN[associated with the content of subfield $a]
ISSN-L[associated with the content of subfield $l]
ISSN-L (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $m]
ISSN (incorrect)[associated with the content of subfield $y]
ISSN (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $z]
ISSN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISSN and as two groups of four digits separated by a hyphen. The hyphen separating the two groups of digits is carried in the MARC record. The initialisms ISSN and ISSN-L and the phrases ISSN-L (canceled)ISSN (incorrect) and ISSN (canceled) are not input. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the content of subfields $a, $l, $m, $y, and $z, respectively.
Content designated field:
0220#$a0018-5817$y0018-5811
Display example: 
ISSN 0018-5817 ISSN (incorrect) 0018-5811





NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd022.html (accessed October 12, 2017)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2017-10-14

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. 

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650 - Subject Added Entry-Topical Term (R)

MARC 21


First IndicatorSecond Indicator
Level of subject
# - No information provided
0 - No level specified
1 - Primary
2 - Secondary
Thesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes
Main term portion
  • $a - Topical term or geographic name entry element (NR)
  • $b - Topical term following geographic name entry element (NR)
  • $c - Location of event (NR)
  • $d - Active dates (NR)
  • $e - Relator term (R)
  • $g - Miscellaneous information (R)
  • $4 - Relationship (R)

Subject subdivision portion
  • $v - Form subdivision (R)
  • $x - General subdivision (R)
  • $y - Chronological subdivision (R)
  • $z - Geographic subdivision (R)
Control subfields
  • $0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)
  • $2 - Source of heading or term (NR)
  • $3 - Materials specified (NR)
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

Subject added entry in which the entry element is a topical term.
Topical subject added entries may consist of general subject terms including names of events or objects. Subject added entries are assigned to a bibliographic record to provide access according to generally accepted thesaurus-building rules (e.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)). Field 650 may be used by any institution assigning subject headings based on the lists and authority files identified in the second indicator position or in subfield $2 (Source of heading or term).
A title (e.g., Bible and atheism), a geographic name (e.g., Iran in the Koran), or the name of a corporate body (e.g., Catholic Church and humanism) used in a phrase subject heading are also recorded in field 650.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

First Indicator - Level of subject
Used to distinguish primary and secondary descriptors.
# - No information provided
0 - No level specified
Level of the subject term could be determined but is not specified.
65000$aFlour industry$vPeriodicals.
1 - Primary
Main focus or subject content of the material.
65017$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
650#7$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
65017$aCooks.$2ericd
2 - Secondary
Less important aspect of the content of the material.
65027$aFood Service.$2ericd
65027$aJunior High Schools.$2ericd
65027$aSimulation.$2ericd
[Primary and secondary subject content identified.]
Second Indicator - Thesaurus
Subject heading system or thesaurus used in constructing the subject heading.
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the Name authority files that are maintained by the Library of Congress.
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
Subject added entry conforms to the "AC Subject Headings" section of the Library of Congress Subject Headings and is appropriate for use in the LC Annotated Card Program.
2 - Medical Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the National Library of Medicine authority files.
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the National Agricultural Library subject authority file.
4 - Source not specified
Subject added entry conforms to a controlled list that cannot be identified by second indicator values 0-3, 5-6 or by a code in subfield $2. Field 653 (Index Term-Uncontrolled) is used to record terms that are not derived from controlled subject heading lists.
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
Subject added entry conforms to and is appropriate for use in the Canadian Subject Headings that is maintained by the Library and Archives Canada.
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
Subject added entry conforms to the Répertoire de vedettes-matière that is maintained by the Bibliothèque de l'Université Laval.
7 - Source specified in subfield $2
Subject added entry conforms to a set of subject heading system/thesaurus building rules. The identifying code is given in subfield $2.

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - Topical term or geographic name entry element
Topical subject or a geographic name used as an entry element for a topical term. Parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term is not separately subfield coded.
650#0$aAmish.
650#0$aKalmyk cattle.
650#0$aAstronauts.
650#0$aEgypt in the Bible.
650#0$aBASIC (Computer program language)
650#0$aBull Run, 2d Battle, 1862.
650#0$aConcertos (String orchestra)
650#0$aVocal music$zFrance$y18th century.
650#0$aDentistry$vJuvenile films.
650#5$aCanadian wit and humor (English)
$b - Topical term following geographic name entry element
Topical term that is entered under a geographic name contained in subfield $a. This construction is not used in AACR2 formulated records.
650#0$aCaracas.$bBolivar Statue.
$c - Location of event
$d - Active dates
Time period during which an event occurred.
$e - Relator term
Specifies the relationship between the topical heading and the described materials, e.g., depicted.
650#0$aSeabiscuit (Race horse),$edepicted.
[Photograph of Seabiscuit, the race horse.]
650#0$aUnicorns,$edepicted.
[Bayeux Tapestry, showing a unicorn.]
$g - Miscellaneous information
Data element that is not more appropriately contained in another defined subfield.
$v - Form subdivision
Form subdivision that designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield $v is appropriate only when a form subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aScuba diving$vPeriodicals.
650#0$aVomiting$xTreatment$vHandbooks, manuals, etc.
$x - General subdivision
Subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfields $v (Form subdivision), $y (Chronological subdivision), or $z (Geographic subdivision). Subfield $x is appropriate only when a general topical subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aRacetracks (Horse-racing)$zUnited States$xHistory.
650#0$aNumismatics$xCollectors and collecting.
$y - Chronological subdivision
Subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aMusic$y500-1400.
$z - Geographic subdivision
Geographic subject subdivision. Subfield $z is appropriate in field 650 only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a main term.
650#0$aWorld War, 1939-1945$xCampaigns$zTunisia.
650#0$aReal property$zMississippi$zTippah County$vMaps.
$0 - Authority record control number or standard number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$2 - Source of heading or term
MARC code that identifies the source list from which the subject added entry was assigned. It is used only when the second indicator position contains value 7 (Source specified in subfield $2). Code from: Subject Heading and Term Source Codes.
650#7$aEducational buildings$zWashington (D.C.)$y1890-1910.$2lctgm
65017$aAcoustic measurement.$2test
$3 - Materials specified
Part of the described materials to which the field applies.
$4 - Relationship
Code or URI that specifies the relationship from the entity described in the record to the entity referenced in the field. A source of relationship codes is: MARC Code List for Relators.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Ambiguous Headings - See Appendix E.
Punctuation - Field 650 ends with a mark of punctuation or a closing parenthesis. If the final subfields are subfield $2 or $3, the mark of punctuation precedes those subfields.
65017$aCareer Exploration.$2ericd
650#0$aBallads, English$zHudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)
Main term portion followed by a subject subdivision does not end with a mark of punctuation unless the main term portion ends with an abbreviation, initial/letter, or open date.
650#0$aRain and rainfall$zWashington (State)$zSeattle$vMaps.
Spacing - No spaces are used in initialisms, acronyms, or abbreviations.
650#0$aMARC formats.
650#0$aC.O.D. shipments.
Display Constant
-[dash associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, or $z]
Dash ( - ) that precedes a subject subdivision in an extended subject heading is not carried in the machine-readable record. It may be system generated as a display constant associated with the content of subfield $v, $x, $y, and $z.
 
Content designated field :
650#0$aNuclear energy$xHistory.
Display example:
Nuclear energy-History.
Initial Article - Initial articles (e.g., The) occurring at the beginning of topical subject added entry fields are usually omitted in most languages (except when the intent is to file on the article).
Any diacritics and/or special characters occurring at the beginning of fields are retained. Note that such characters are usually ignored for purposes of sorting and filing.

CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

$b - Topical term following geographic name as entry element [OBSOLETE, 1981]
Subfield was restored for use in retrospective record conversion in 1987.
$g - Miscellaneous information [NEW, 2014]
$4 - Relator code [NEW, 2005]
$4 - Relator code [RENAMED, 2017] [REDESCRIBED, 2017]
Subfield $4 was renamed and redescribed to allow for the recording of relationship URIs in addition to MARC and non-MARC codes.



NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd650.html (accessed December 8, 2015)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2015-10-14

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. 

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...