Thursday, October 22, 2015

Subject Heading List : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science

Subject Heading

Subject Heading List  Subject Heading List is the printed or published list of subject headings which may be produced from the subject authority file maintained by an organization or individual.

Subject heading list contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval. Cross references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

Subject heading lists may have provision for the construction of pre-coordinated indexing strings including headings, plus rules for combining the single terms in strings and one or more levels of subheading. Based on these rules a subject heading may also be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity.

Two popular subject heading lists are Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Sears List of Subject Headings.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service

Hotels

URI
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85062487

Variants
Hotels, taverns, etc
Inns

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Caravansaries
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Lodging-houses
Motels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Boardinghouses
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification
GT3770-GT3896
NA7800-NA7850
TX901-TX946

Subject headings, like access points based on author names and titles, serve the dual function of location and collocation. Subject heading lists are used by library catalogers to aid them in their choice of appropriate subject headings and to achieve uniformity. Subject Headings and thesauri are one of the two methods used to facilitate subject access to library materials. The other is library classification. Classification organizes knowledge and library materials into a systematic order according to their subject content, while subject headings provide access to documents through vocabulary terms. Subject Headings or Thesauri can assign multiple terms to the same document, but in classification each document can only be placed in one class.

In a MARC bibliographic record Subject Heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about. 

Used for: Subject Heading Scheme, Subject Headings Scheme, Subject Headings List, Subject Scheme, Subject Heading Schedule




This new encyclopedic entry in the “Glossary of Library & Information Science” of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions?
  • What is Subject Heading List?
  • Where Subject Heading List is applied?
  • What is vocabulary control and why is it important?
  • How Subject Heading List assist library users and staff?
  • What are the alternatives to Subject Heading?
  • What are the popular Subject Heading Lists?

All librarians and information professionals may use information from Glossary of Library & Information Science for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too! Please cite as given below:

MLA: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)
Chicago: Haider, Salman. "Glossary of Library & Information Science." (2015)

See also:

Please provide us your valuable feedback in the Guest Book on Contact Us page to make Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog a better place for information on Library and Information Science and Information Technology related to libraries. Let us know your review of this definition of Subject Heading. You can also suggest edits/additions to this description of Subject Heading

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog will be more focused on the techniques of Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) by use of Classification & Shelflisting Manual (CSM) and Subject Headings Manual (SHM) and Classification Web tool of Library of Congress, and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Follow Librarianship Studies & Information Technology in Social Media blog to be updated of new items and start/comment on the discussions in the Google+ Community Librarianship Studies & Information Technology and Facebook Group Librarianship Studies & Information Technology.



At present the Glossary of Library & Information Science is referred in following places:

LINKS & REFERENCE IN WEBSITES BLOGS ETC.


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Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Library Cataloging Research

RDA Bibliography
RDA Bibliography


This new RDA Blog post discusses status and availability of researches on library descriptive cataloging with reference to Masters, M.Phil. and Ph.D. thesis and dissertations on library cataloging which may be available in print and/or online.

It argues that with the emergence of Resource Description & Access (RDA), as the successor of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2), it becomes necessary to do quality research works on the descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2 and evaluating its significance and impact on librarianship and library services.

It seeks suggestions for potential topics on which researches should be carried out in Library Descriptive cataloging using RDA and AACR2

#RDABLOG #RDABIBLIOGRAPHY #RDA #CATALOGING

Friday, October 16, 2015

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Information Access Through The Subject

Subject Approach to Information in Libraries

Most of the users approach information sources not with names, who might have been responsible for their creation, but with a question that requires an answer, or a topic for study. Users seek documents or information on a particular subject. In order to make provision for this common approach, it is necessary to arrange documents on the shelf and entries in catalogs in such a way that items on a specific subject can be retrieved. In other words, it may be said that subject approach is very important in the access to and exploitation of documents in a library. Before we actually discuss the methods developed by librarians and information workers to meet this requirement, let us consider the question "What is a subject?" while talking about a subject we normally refer to a given area of knowledge, or the contents of a document of a given scope. A subject may be defined by:

a. an area of interest, 

b. an area in which an individual researcher or professional works, 

c. an area in which an individual writes, and 

d. an area of knowledge being studied.

Let us consider a well known area such as Physics. To understand this subject, let us first ask a student studying this subject, as to what constitutes this subject. Also, let us find out the definition of physics from a few dictionaries and encyclopedias. We may come across different definitions and different boundaries for this subject area alone. We may also find that different users and separate pieces of literature hold different perspectives on a subject. The points of divergence in perspective can be categorized into two types:

a. different labels (names) that are used for a subject, and 

b. different concepts about scope and associations with other subjects that are evident. 

Essentially, these factors form the basis of problems in identifying a satisfactory subject approach and the need to have a vast array of tools to explain the subject approach to knowledge or information. It is possible and convenient to select a particular view point on the scope, associations and labels for subjects which coincides with the way in which subjects are handled in the literature. In libraries, most devices for the organisation of knowledge concern themselves primarily with organizing documents, based on literary warrant. This approach is known as pragmatic approach. Collection dependency of the resulting tool. There is retrieval devices, and that is to build schemes, which depend upon theoretical views about the nature and structure of knowledge. This theoretical approach is important in determining the nature of subject devices required for the organisation of knowledge. A subject device normally seeks to fulfill two functions:

a. to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject; and 

b. to show what a library or information center has on related subjects. 

Different devices for the organisation of knowledge place different emphasis based on the relative importance of these two functions. However, the two functions are inter-dependent and neither can be excluded without impairing the effectiveness of the other.

Classification schemes as well as alphabetical indexing systems attempt to fulfill both the basic functions mentioned earlier. The distinction arises from different emphasis. Classification schemes specialize in showing network of subjects and displaying relationships between subjects while alphabetical indexing systems specialize in establishing specific labels for subjects and providing direct access to individual subjects. Also, it may be stated here that author and title catalogs enable the user to locate documents of which the user knows either the name of the author or title of the documents, while subject catalog enable him to find out documents of his interest even without knowing any of these items of information.

The subject approach may totally be alphabetical or it might be classified supported by alphabetical indexes. 

In classified system the arrangement of library materials is done using a classification scheme. The classification scheme provides a library with a systematic arrangement of materials according to their subject content. The second, and the most commonly used method, is indexing the library materials through the use of a subject heading list or controlled vocabulary. This method provides access to the intellectual content of a library. Classification provides a logical approach to the arrangement of documentary materials, where as subject cataloging provides alphabetic approach to the concepts discussed in these materials. These two methods offer two alternative modes of access to library collection.

This new post of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog answers following questions:
  • What are the Subject Approach to Information in Libraries
  • How library users seek information on a particular subject?
  • How library materials are arranged on shelves and catalogs to be located by subject?
  • What is a subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on a particular subject?
  • What methods and tools catalogers use to show what a library or information center has on related subjects?
  • How classification schemes are used for subject approaches?
  • How subject headings are used for subject approaches?

Source: (Chapter 1) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 

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Thursday, October 15, 2015

RDA CATALOGING NEWS

RDA CATALOGING NEWS


http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/10/rda-cataloging-news.html


RDA Cataloging News is an initiative by RDA Blog. It combines the entries of RDA Bibliography and also items on Subject Cataloging. Please suggest entries to be included in RDA Cataloging News (preferably through RDA Cataloging - Google+ Community on Resource Description and Access (RDA) or by any other means of your wish).

Contents appear under following headings:
  • News
  • Events / Workshops / Seminars / Conferences / Training / Etc.
  • Web / Blog Posts
  • Articles
  • Books
  • Presentations
  • Videos
  • Thesis
  • Reviews
Do you think this tedious and time consuming initiative of compiling a newsletter of RDA Cataloging News should be continued? Will you be helping me in this compilation by suggesting information to be included here? What do you think about RDA Blog, is this helpful? Please provide us your valuable feedback in the RDA Blog Guest Book; selected detailed feedback will be published on RDA Blog Testimonials


#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES #RDABLOG #CATALOGING #RDA #MARC21

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

022 - International Standard Serial Number (R)

MARC 21

First Indicator
Level of international interest
# - No level specified
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
$a - International Standard Serial Number (NR)
$l - ISSN-L (NR)
$m - Canceled ISSN-L (R)
$y - Incorrect ISSN (R) 
$z - Canceled ISSN (R)
$2 - Source (NR)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R) 

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), a unique identification number assigned to a continuing resource, and/or any incorrect or canceled ISSN.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

First Indicator - Level of international interest
Value that specifies whether the continuing resource is of international interest or of local or ephemeral interest only.
# - No level specified
Level of international interest is unknown or not specified. Used by all institutions other than the ISSN Centers when recording the ISSN from an issue or from a bibliography.
0 - Continuing resource of international interest
Of international interest, thus a full record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for all continuing resources for which individual ISSN Centers receive ISSN requests from abstracting and indexing services or other ISSN Network centers. Also used for all other continuing resources that are not within the scope defined for value 1. This value may be input only by the ISSN Centers.
1 - Continuing resource not of international interest
Not of international interest, thus an abbreviated record has been registered with the ISSN Network. Used for continuing resources judged to be of local or ephemeral interest. ISSN Centers have defined publications of local or ephemeral interest as those in which interest is likely to be limited to a certain geographic area, e.g., local newspapers, or certain span of time, e.g., calendars of events. In case of doubt, value 0 is used. This value may only be input by the ISSN Centers.
Second Indicator - Undefined
Undefined and contains a blank (#).

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - International Standard Serial Number
Valid ISSN for the continuing resource. ISSN may be generated for display.
022##$a0376-4583
$l - ISSN-L
ISSN that links together various media versions of a continuing resource. ISSN-L may be generated for display.
0220#$a1234-1231$l1234-1231
$m - Canceled ISSN-L
Canceled ISSN-L that has been associated with the resource. Each canceled ISSN-L is contained in a separate subfield $m. ISSN-L (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a1560-1560$l1234-1231$m1560-1560
$y - Incorrect ISSN
Incorrect ISSN that has been associated with the continuing resource. Each incorrect ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $y. A canceled ISSN is contained in subfield $z.
ISSN (incorrect) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0046-225X$y0046-2254
$z - Canceled ISSN
Canceled ISSN that is associated with the continuing resource. Each canceled ISSN is contained in a separate subfield $z.
ISSN (canceled) may be generated for display.
0220#$a0145-0808$z0361-7106
0220#$z0027-3473
$2 - Source
ISSN Center responsible for assigning and maintaining ISSNs and related data.
Code from: ISSN National Centres code list online at: www.issn.org, National Centres.
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

ISSN Structure - ISSN is an agency-assigned data element. ISSNs are assigned to continuing resource publications by national centers under the auspices of the ISSN Network. An ISSN consists of eight digits comprising two groups of four digits each, separated by a hyphen. The eighth digit is a check digit used as a computer validity check; it consists of a number between 0 and 9 or an uppercase X (for the arabic numeral 10). A description of the ISSN structure and the procedure for validation of the ISSN by calculating the check digit is in International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN) (ISO 3297).
Punctuation - Field 022 does not end with a period.
Display Constants
ISSN[associated with the content of subfield $a]
ISSN-L[associated with the content of subfield $l]
ISSN-L (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $m]
ISSN (incorrect)[associated with the content of subfield $y]
ISSN (canceled)[associated with the content of subfield $z]
ISSN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISSN and as two groups of four digits separated by a hyphen. The hyphen separating the two groups of digits is carried in the MARC record. The initialisms ISSN and ISSN-L and the phrases ISSN-L (canceled)ISSN (incorrect) and ISSN (canceled) are not input. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the content of subfields $a, $l, $m, $y, and $z, respectively.
Content designated field:
0220#$a0018-5817$y0018-5811
Display example: 
ISSN 0018-5817 ISSN (incorrect) 0018-5811





NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd022.html (accessed October 12, 2017)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2017-10-14

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. 

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Monday, October 12, 2015

020 - International Standard Book Number (R)

MARC 21


First IndicatorSecond Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
  • $a - International Standard Book Number (NR)
  • $c - Terms of availability (NR)
  • $q - Qualifying information (R)
  • $z - Canceled/invalid ISBN (R)
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

International Standard Book Number (ISBN) assigned to a monographic publication by designated agencies in each country participating in the program. The field may include terms of availability and canceled or invalid ISBNs, such as ISBNs with invalid check digits or that are not applicable to the item being cataloged. It may be repeated for multiple numbers associated with the item (e.g., ISBNs for the hard bound and paperback manifestations; ISBNs for a set as a whole and for the individual parts in the set).
Each field contains all the information relevant to one ISBN, or if no ISBN exists, relevant to the item being cataloged.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

  • Both indicator positions are undefined; each contains a blank (#).

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - International Standard Book Number
Valid ISBN. ISBN and the embedded hyphens may be generated for display.
020##$a0491001304
020##$a0914378260$qpbk.$qv. 1$c$5.00
020##$a0394502884$qRandom House$c$12.50
020##$a0877790086 :$c$10.00
020##$z0877790105$qFabrikoid$c$12.00
020##$a0877790019$qblack leather$z0877780116 :$c$14.00
020##$a0877790124$qblue pigskin$c$15.00
020##$z0877790159$qeasel binding$c$16.00
[Five numbers associated with one catalog record. Two are valid; one has both a valid and invalid form; two are invalid.]
$c - Terms of availability
Price or a brief statement of availability and any paranthetical qualifying information about availability.
If only price information is present, data relevant to a single item is given in one subfield $c in one field 020 and data relevant to another item is given in another subfield $c in a subsequent 020 field.
020##$a0802142176$qpbk.$c$1.95
020##$c$8.95
020##$cRs15.76 ($5.60 U.S.)
020##$a0460044524$cRental material
020##$cFor sale ($450.00) or rent ($45.00)
020##$cFor sale ($200.00 for 3/4 in.; $150.00 for 1/2 in.)
$q - Qualifying information
A brief statement of qualifying information concerning the item associated with a number being recorded in subfield $a or subfield $z.
020##$a0394170660$qRandom House$qpaperback$c$4.95
020##$a0456789012$qreel 1
020##$z0567890123$qreel 2
020##$a9780060723804$qacid-free paper
020##$a9780060799748$qtrade
020##$a0717941728$qfolded$c$0.45
$z - Canceled/invalid ISBN
Canceled or invalid ISBN. ISBN (invalid) and the embedded hyphens may be generated for display.
Each canceled/invalid ISBN is contained in a separate subfield $z. If no valid ISBN exists, subfield $z may be used alone in the record.
020##$z0835200028 :$c$10.00
020##$a0835200019$qpbk.$c$2.95
[Two ISBN's associated with one catalog record, one of which is invalid.]
$6 - Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Qualifying Information - In displays, qualifying information may be enclosed in parentheses.
ISBN Structure - ISBN is an agency-assigned data element. ISBNs are assigned to monographic publications by designated agencies in each country participating in the program. An ISBN consists of ten or thirteen digits. The 10-digit ISBN comprises four groups separated by hyphens. (The tenth digit is a check digit used as a computer validity check; it consists of a number between 0 and 9 or an uppercase X (for the arabic numeral 10). The 13-digit ISBN comprises of five elements. Element one consists of a 3-digit EAN prefix that identifies the book industry. Element two identifies the country or language agency. Element three identifies the publisher prefix. Element four identifies the title or specific edition of a publication. Element five contains a check digit.
Procedures for validation of the ISBN by calculating the check digit and hyphenating instructions are in Information and Documentation - International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN) (ISO 2108).
Classes of ISBNs - ISBNs may be valid for the item being cataloged, or canceled, structurally invalid, or application invalid. The following conventions may be followed to select the appropriate subfield for an ISBN.
Valid ISBN: - Valid ISBN is one in which the length, structure, and check digit are correct, and the ISBN is applicable to the item being cataloged. The validity of an ISBN to a particular bibliographic item is usually related to the treatment given it by the cataloging agency in terms of the number of records involved. If a single record represents more than one manifestation, e.g., hard back and paperback, both ISBNs are valid. If a single record represents a multipart monograph, ISBNs for the set as a whole and those for individual volumes are valid. If a single record describes the main part and supplemental parts of a bibliographic item, all ISBNs for the main and the supplemental material are valid. In cases of multiple valid ISBNs in one record, appropriate qualifiers to differentiate the ISBNs are usually included. Note that during the transition from a 10-digit ISBN to a 13-digit one (2005-2007), some bibliographic agencies include both a 13-digit number and a 10-digit one for the same item in repeated 020 fields. In such cases, parenthetical qualification is not used to differentiate between the 10-digit and 13-digit ISBNs.
Canceled ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be canceled when a publisher designates it as such.
Structurally invalid ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be structurally invalid when its length or structure is incorrect or its check digit does not agree with the formula for calculating it.
Application invalid ISBN: - ISBN is considered to be application invalid for a particular record when it appears on the bibliographic item, but it is known, through research or other means, that the same number is also assigned to a different resource.
ISBN may also be considered to be application invalid if it is not directly applicable to the bibliographic item represented by a particular record. Application invalidity is usually related to the cataloging treatment employed by a particular agency in terms of the number of records involved. For example, if there is a record for a multivolume set as well as separate records for each of the volumes in the set, the ISBN for the set is considered application invalid on the records for the volumes. Only the ISBN applicable to the entity represented by a particular record is considered valid on that record.
Punctuation - Field 020 does not end with a period.
Display Constants
ISBN[associated with the content of subfield $a]
ISBN (invalid)[associated with the content of subfield $z]
- - -[embedded hyphens]
ISBN usually appears on an item with the prefix ISBN and with each of its parts separated from the other by hyphens or spaces. The initialism ISBN, the phrase ISBN (invalid), and the embedded hyphens are not carried in the MARC record. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the content of subfields $a and $z, respectively.
Content designated field:
020##$a0870686933$qv. 1$z087064302
Display example:
ISBN 0-87068-693-3 (v. 1) ISBN (invalid) 0-87068-430-2



NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd020.html (accessed October 12, 2017)

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Written: 2017-10-12

PERMALINK

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback. 

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...

010 - Library of Congress Control Number (NR)

MARC 21



First Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined
Second Indicator
Undefined
# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
$a - LC control number (NR)
$b - NUCMC control number (R) 
$z - Canceled/invalid LC control number (R)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R) 

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

Unique number assigned to a MARC record by the Library of Congress. Valid MARC prefixes for LC control numbers are published in MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data.
The control number for MARC records distributed by LC is an LC control number (LCCN). The LC control number is carried in field 001 (Control Number) in records distributed by LC's Cataloging Distribution Service and in field 010$a. An organization using LC records may remove the LC control number from field 001 and use field 001 for its own system control number.
An LC record may contain field 010 with a canceled or invalid control number of a previously-distributed record. A record may be canceled because it is a duplicate record for the same item. The structure of the canceled/invalid control number is the same as that used by LC in field 001.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

 INDICATORS

  • Both indicator positions are undefined; each contains a blank (#).

 SUBFIELD CODES

$a - LC control number
Valid LC control number (see explanation of structure of this number given below).
010##$a###85153773#
010##$anuc76039265#
010##$a##2001627090
010##$a##2001336783
$b - NUCMC control number
Valid entry number for the item being described as found in National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC). The number begins with the prefix ms.
010##$a###89798632#$bms#89001579#
$z - Canceled/invalid LC control number
Canceled or invalid LC control number, including invalid NUCMC numbers.
010##$a###76647633#$zsc#76000587#
010##$a###81691938#$z###82692384#
$8 - Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Classes of LCCNs - LCCNs may be valid, canceled, or invalid (structurally or application) for the record. The following conventions are followed to select the appropriate subfield for an LCCN.
Valid LCCN: - A valid LCCN for a record is the one that appears in the 001 when the record is distributed by LC. It has correct length and structure.
Canceled LCCN: - A record, hence its LCCN, may be canceled for a variety of reasons, very often because it is a duplicate record for the same manifestation of a resource. An LCCN is considered to be canceled when LC designates it as such.
Structurally invalid LCCN: - An LCCN is considered structurally invalid when its length or structure is incorrect according to the practices of the Library of Congress.
Application invalid LCCN: - An LCCN is invalid in application when it appears on the item being cataloged but it is not the LCCN of the record for the item, e.g. the LCCN assigned to the record for one edition is also printed in another, different edition which has its own record and LCCN.
Punctuation - Field 010 does not end in a mark of punctuation. A slash is used to separate revision information from the control number and any suffix. Multiple suffixes are also separated by a slash.
Capitalization - Prefixes are always input as lowercase alphabetic characters. Suffixes and alphabetic identifiers added to the end of the LC control number are input as uppercase alphabetic characters.

STRUCTURE OF THE LC CONTROL NUMBER

The LC control numbering system has had the same basic structure since its initial use to control Library of Congress bibliographic information in card form beginning in 1898 (LCCN structure A). On January 1, 2001, a structural change occurred (LCCN structure B). The basic control number has been fixed in length at 12 characters and will remain that length, although under LCCN structure A suffixes were occasionally used and under LCCN structure B the location of element parts is slightly altered to accommodate a four digit year. Under both structures, the prefix, year, and serial number are the basic elements required to make an LCCN unique.
LCCN Structure A (1898-2000)
Name of ElementNumber of charactersCharacter position in field
Alphabetic prefix300-02
Year203-04
Serial number605-10
Supplement number111
Suffix and/or Revision Datevariable12-n
LCCN Structure B (2001- )
Name of ElementNumber of charactersCharacter position in field
Alphabetic prefix200-01
Year402-05
Serial number606-11
Alphabetic prefix
Prefixes are carried in a MARC record as lowercase alphabetic characters and serve to differentiate between different series of LC control numbers. Prefixes are left justified and unused positions contain blanks. If no prefix is present, the prefix portion contains blanks.
010##$a###68004897#
[LCCN structure A; number on printed card: 68-4897]
010##$a##2001045944
[LCCN structure B; number in print form: 2001-45944]
Prior to the existence of MARC records, prefixes of various lengths were used on printed cards with combinations of uppercase or lowercase letters and numbers. For MARC records, equivalents have been defined by the Library of Congress for some of these early prefixes, including those that were longer than two or three characters. All other prefixes are input as found but in lowercase. The first column in the list below gives prefixes found on printed cards not printed from machine-readable records and shows how they are to be input into a MARC version of the record. The list also includes some MARC prefixes not found only on MARC records. Only prefixes which have a MARC form noted below should be recorded in machine-readable records. (The alphabetic prefix for the Library of Congress control number is an authoritative-agency data element, maintained by the Library of Congress.)
Since the prefixes were used in records before 2001, they are found in the LCCN Structure A only.
LCCN Prefix Table
Note: In the first column, an asterisked (*) item indicates the form in which the prefix appears on the card.
Prefix on cardMARC PrefixExplanation of usage
AaCataloging provided to LC by an American library, 1909-
ACacCataloging for foreign materials provided to LC by cooperating libraries under the auspices of the ALA Committee on Cooperative Cataloging, 1932-1942
ACacAnnotated cards for juvenile books, 1966-
AFafCataloging for foreign acquisitions provided to LC by other American libraries, 1946-1950
AFLMaflNo explanation available
AgragrU.S. Department of Agriculture cataloging, 1902-
biHandbook of Latin American Studies record
BRbrLibrary of Congress, Division for the Blind, braille book
BSbsU.S. Bureau of Standards cataloging, 1913-1938
CcU.S. Interstate Commerce Commission cataloging, 1915-1916
CcLibrary of Congress, Chinese entries, 1949-
C-245 or 245*cLC card numbers for June-August 1898; year prefix “98" added when input into MARC
CAcaLC temporary entries for books in the general classified collections, 1905-1937
CA DuplcadLC temporary entries for books in the general classified collections, 1905-1937
CDcdLC analytical entries for sets and series prepared by the Card Division, 1916-1940
CDcdCataloging prepared for LC card sales
clcCollection level cataloging; PREMARC record
CScsCataloging prepared by the LC Cooperative Cataloging and Classification Service, 1934-1939
CXcxCross reference cards used in LC catalogs for Chinese entries, 1958-
cyFederal Cylinder Project, Oct. 1980
1-D-245 or D-245dLC card numbers for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
DOdoU.S. Superintendent of Docs. cataloging, 1913-1916
EeU.S. Office of Education cataloging, 1908-1958
ESesU.S. Engineers School cataloging, 1913-1935
FfU.S. Bureau of Fisheries cataloging, 1910-1940
1-F-245 or F-245fLC card numbers for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
FifiFilms cataloged by LC, 1951-
FiAfiaCataloging provided by film producers, 1951-
FiEfieCataloging provided by the Visual Education Service of the Office of Education, and other government agencies, 1951-
1-G-245 or G-245*gLC card numbers for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
GMgmMaps cataloged by LC, 1968-1972
GSgsU.S. Geological Survey cataloging, 1904-
HhU.S. National Institute of Health cataloging, 1914-1921
HAhaU.S. Housing Authority cataloging, 1940-
HEheHebrew entries cataloged by LC, 1964-
HEWhewU.S. Dept. of Health, Ed., and Welfare cataloging, 1958-
HEXhexCross reference cards used for Hebrew entries, 1964-
1-I-245 or It-245*itLC card numbers for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
IntintU.S. Department of the Interior cataloging, 1959
JjLC cataloging for Japanese materials 1949-
JAjaCataloging for Japanese materials provided to LC by other American libraries, 1951
JXjxCross reference cards used for Japanese entries, 1958-
KkKorean entries cataloged by LC, 1951-
KXkxCross reference cards used for Korean entries, 1958-
LlU.S. Dept. of Labor cataloging, 1911-
llhIndex to Hispanic Legislation cataloging
ltfLess-than-full cataloging; PREMARC record
MmSheet music cataloged by LC, 1953-1962
MAmaSheet music for which copy was supplied by another American library, 1953-1961
MapmapAtlases in the Maps Division of LC, 1901-
1-Map-50 or Map-50mapLC card numbers for maps for period May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
MedmedU.S. Armed Forces Medical Library cataloging, 1946-1948
MicmicMicrofilms cataloged by LC, 1949-
MicAmidMicrofilms for which cataloging was provided by another American library, 1946-
MicpmieMicrocards and microprints cataloged by LC, 1953-
MicpAmifMicrocards and microprints for which cataloging was provided by another American library, 1953-
mmLibrary of Congress Manuscripts Division
mpEarly films cataloged by LC, 1970s
MPAmpaPan American Union cataloging for sheet music, 1956-
MSmsManuscripts cataloged by LC, 1959-
1-Music-245 or Music-245*musLC card numbers for music for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
ncnNitrate Film Service cataloging
NEneMaterials published in the Near East or in the languages of those countries, 1961-
NEXnexCross reference cards used for books published in the Near East or in the languages of those countries, 1961-
NOnoU.S. Naval Observatory cataloging, 1930-1940
ntcNational Translation Center cataloging
nucRecords printed in theNational Union Catalogfor which no LC card number is available
orOrder Division cataloging
PApaPan American Union cataloging, 1930-
PhophoCataloging provided by other libraries for photographic reproductions of books, 1927-
PhoMphpCataloging provided by Card Division for photographic facsimiles issued by the Modern Language Association of America, 1927-1938
PhomAphqCataloging provided by other libraries for Modern Language Association of America photographic facsimiles
POpoU.S. Patent Office cataloging, 1917-1953
ppPrints and Photographs videodisc system, March 1984
RrPhonograph records cataloged by LC, 1953-
RAraCataloging provided by other American libraries for phonographs, 1955-
1-Rc-245 or Rc-245*rcLC card numbers for May-December 1901. Year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
reCataloging for commercial ethnic sound recordings produced in the U.S. project, 1981
ruCataloging from the Russian Book Chamber, 1988-
SsSmithsonian Institution cataloging, 1913-
SAsaCataloging for materials published in Southeast Asia or in the languages of those countries, 1961-
SAXsaxCross reference cards used for materials published in Southeast Asia or in the languages of those countries, 1961-
scSerials, CONSER item not in LC
SDsdU.S. Dept. of State cataloging, 1914-
sfSerials form card or Minimal Level Cataloging or classed separately monographic series
SGsgSurgeon General’s Library, U.S. Army cataloging, 1916-
snSerials, CONSER; item may or may not be in LC
suSplit manuscripts records
SSssSocial Security Administration cataloging, 1944-1958
TBtbTalking Books program cataloging
tmpTemporary cataloging from PREMARC
umUnion map; an outside map record input by the Geography and Map Division for NUC use but residing in the G&M database
unkCard for which no LC card number was available; PREMARC
WwDistrict of Columbia Public Library cataloging, 1905-1942
WarwarU.S. Army, War College cataloging, 1907-1932
XxCross reference cards used in LC catalogs, January 1941-
1-Z-245 or Z-245*zLC card numbers for May-December 1901; year prefix “01" added when input into MARC
Year
For control numbers assigned under LCCN structure A, the year portion consists of two digits normally representing the year the record was created. For control numbers assigned under LCCN structure B beginning with the year 2001, the year portion consists of four digits.
In most numbers, the year portion reflects the year in which the LC control number was assigned to the record for the bibliographic item. During the 1969-1972 period, a 7-series year number was assigned. In these numbers the initial digit of 7 was followed by a modulus-ll check digit. The year in which the card number was assigned can be approximated from the year portion of the Date entered on file (008/00-05). With the re-institution of the year series number in 1972, provisions were made to skip those individual card numbers which could have been assigned previously as a 7-series number. Note: 7-series numbers were not used for non-book map material. The prefix gm was used from 1968 through 1972.
For LC control numbers with two-digit years, the century may be determined according to the following table:
2-digit yearSequential numberCenturySequential numberCentury
98Less than 3000183000 or greater19
99Less than 6000186000 or greater19
00Less than 8000198000 or greater20
Serial number
Serial number portion consists of one to six digits. Serial numbers of less than six digits are right justified and unused positions contain zeros. The hyphen which separates the year and the serial number on LC printed products is not carried in the MARC record. For example, the number 85-2 is carried as 85000002 in a record.
Supplement number (LCCN structure A only)
This character position was originally defined to carry a supplement number for dashed-on supplement entries in bibliographic records. Use of the supplement number was not implemented, therefore this position contains a blank. Supplements and similar materials are now cataloged separately by LC and are carried as separate records with their own LC control number. In some older records, information about supplements and similar materials is given in a 500 note field.
Suffix/Alphabetic Identifier (LCCN structure A only)
Older LC control numbers sometimes include suffixes or alphabetic identifiers carried as variable length data following the Supplement number. A single slash (/) introduces the suffix/alphabetic identifier. Multiple occurrences of either suffixes or alphabetic identifiers are separated one from the other by a slash. Suffixes and alphabetic identifiers do not affect the uniqueness of the control number.
All suffixes and alphabetic identifiers, except the revision date, appear in the MARC record as uppercase alphabetic characters. On printed card copy, suffixes appear after the LC control number separated by a slash. Suffixes have not been assigned since 1969 and they will be deleted from Library of Congress files in 1999. Alphabetic identifiers appear on printed card copy as uppercase alphabetic characters beneath the LC card number in the lower right hand corner of the card. Alphabetic identifiers were first assigned in 1969 and were used as distribution information for card copy by LC. Alphabetic identifiers will be deleted from the Library of Congress files in 1999.
010##$a###79139101#/AC/MN
[Printed number is 79-139101 with AC MN printed below the number.]
010##$a###65077628#/MN
[Printed number is 65-77628 with MN printed below the number.]
Suffix/alphabetic identifiers
ACused on records included in the "Annotated Card" program
AMused for works in Amharic
ACNused for works in Chinese
AJused for works in Japanese
AKused for works in Korean
Fused for records created by the Audiovisual Section, Special Materials Cataloging Division for motion pictures, filmstrips, sets of slides and transparencies, video recordings, etc.
HEused for works published in the Hebrew alphabet, regardless of language
Mused for works classed in M
MAPused for atlases
MNused for works classed in ML and MT
MPused for records created by the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division
NEused for works in Armenian, Arabic, Georgian, Ottoman Turkish, Persian, Pashto, and Turkish, as well as any non-Slavic language of Central Asia written in the Cyrillic alphabet
PPused for records created by the Prints and Photographs Division
Rused for all sound recordings
Revision Date (LCCN structure A only)
Revision dates associated with LC control numbers specify the latest date that the bibliographic data in a record underwent a change. Revision data do not affect the uniqueness of the control number. To account for the number of times significant changes have been made to a record beyond the first such change, a number was added as the last character of the revision date. The date a record was originally created is the Date entered on file (field 008/00-05).
A revision date such as “r73" means that the record was changed in 1973. The revision date “r743" means that significant changes have been made to the record three times, the last being made in 1974.
010##$a###75425165#//r75
[Number 75-425165 revised in 1975.]
010##$a###73002284#//r752
[Number 73-2284 with (r75)rev 2 printed revision information.]
010##$a###58062665#/L/r58
[Printed number is 58-62665 rev*. (The * was represented on the printed product by a double dagger and indicated limited cataloging; it was carried in the MARC record as an L. When the LC control number was printed from the MARC record, the L printed as Lim beneath the control number.)]
Revision date was used as an indication of the degree of importance of a change made to a record. A significant change to a record at the Library of Congress was defined as one important enough to warrant, among other things, redistribution of cards to LC's own catalogs. A significant change included changes to content designation, to an access point (fields 020, $a or $z, 028, $a, 050, 051, 082, 1XX, 240, 245$a, 4XX (excluding 490), 6XX, 7XX, 8XX), a change to the extent of an item (300$a), a change to the publication date (260$c), a change to the record control number (field 001), or a change to Leader/18 (Descriptive cataloging form).
Revision information was separated from a suffix or an alphabetic identifier by one slash (/). If no suffixes or alphabetic identifiers are present, revision information was separated from the Supplement number by two slashes (//). The inclusion of revision data was discontinued in 1999 and will be deleted from all records in the Library of Congress files.




NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd010.html (accessed October 10, 2017)

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HISTORY
  • Written: 2017-10-12

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