Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Derived Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject
Derived Indexing

  • Introduction to Derived Indexing
  • Title-Based Indexing
  • Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing
  • Keyword Out of Context (KWOC)
  • Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC)
  • Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)
  • Merits of Keyword Indexing System
  • Demerits of Keyword Indexing
  • Search Strategy for Keyword Indexes
  • Conclusion
  • Citation Indexing
  • Advantages of Citation Indexing

0   Introduction to Derived Indexing
We  have to encode the subject of a document in order to place the document itself or our records of it in our store. This means that we must in same way be able to specify the subject. Generally an indexer  neither has time to read all the documents added to the stock,  nor has enough understanding  about them.  He therefore, uses short cuts-like: the contents page, preface or introduction, or publishers  blurb on the book cover; or an abstract if we are looking at a journal article or technical report; or the claims for a patent specification. All of these will give some indication of the subject and will suggest certain lines of thought if we want to pursue the matter further, for example in a dictionary or encyclopaedia.
While indexing we may rely solely on information which is manifest in the document, without attempting to add to this from our own knowledge or other sources. This is derived indexing, that is, indexing derived directly from the document. There are some ways in which derived indexing has been used to produce printed indexes, particularly in computer-based systems. These are now often found in online systems, but the principles remains the same.
However, during the process of indexing, it is practice to distinguish between intellectual and clerical effort involved in  an IR system,  and computers enable is to carry out the clerical operations at high speed. Derived indexing reduces intellectual effort to a minimum and is thus suited to computer operations, which enables to get a variety of outputs from the one input.
Examples of derived indexing are title based indexing and citation indexing.

1   Title-Based Indexing

There is one part of a document in which authors themselves usually try to define the subject: the title . The title in itself is a one line summary of a document and this serve as an index point, hence, title indexes came into force. This is very  simple as the important terms  representing the subject of the document are selected and rotated to prepare entries from the title, moreover, this could be very easily prepared using a computer. Examples of title indexes are KWIC (Key Word In Context, KWOC (Keyword Out of Content), and KEYTALPHA (Key-Term Alphabetical).
It is important to note that the titles are not always provided in a manner to represent the subject, so title-based indexes are good only if the subject is clearly expressed in the words f the title Title-indexing is also referred to as Keyword indexing.
Keyword indexing system was originally developed by  Andrea Crestadoro in 1956, under the name ‘Keywords in Titles’. He used it for the catalogue of  the Manchester Public Library. H.P. Lubn of IBM revived this system under the name of Keyword in content (KWIC) in 1958. KWIC was adopted by American Chemical Society in 1960 for its publication ‘Chemical titles’.
Keyword indexing was a significant development in the area of subject indexing. It is a totally mechanised, computerised and automated indexing system.

1.1 Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing

Keyword in Context Indexing system is based on the principle that the title of the document represents its contents. It is believed that the title f the document is one line abstract of the document. The significant words in the title indicate the subject of the document. a KWIC index makes an entry under each significant word in the title, along with the remaining part of the title to keep the context intact. The entries are derived using terms one by one as the lead term along with the entire context for each entry.

(a) Structure

Each entry in KWIC index consists of three parts

i) Keyword: Significant words of the title which serve as approach/access teems.

ii) Context: The rest of the terms of the title provided along with the keywords specifies the context fo the document.

iii) Identification or Location Code: A code (usually the social number of the entry) which provides address of the document where its full bibliographical details will be available.

In order to indicate the end of the title a “/” symbol is used. The identification code is put on the extreme right to indicate the location of the document.

(b) Indexing Process

KWIC indexing system consists of three steps

Step I : Keyword selection
Step II :Entry generation
Step III : Filing

Step I: First of all significant words or keywords are selected from the title. It is done by omitting articles,  prepositions, conjunctions and others non-significant words or terms. The selection is done by the editor who marks the keywords. When a computer is used for preparing an index, the selection is done by having ‘stop list’ of  non significant terms stored in it. A stop list consists of articles, prepositions and certain other common words which would be stopped from becoming the keywords. Another method of providing the  correct terms f entries is by human intervention at the input stage, wherein the editor indicates the keyterms which are then picked up by the computer.
Step II: After the selection of keywords, the computer moves the title laterally in such a way that a significant word (key word) for a particular entry always appears either on the extreme left hand side or in the centre. The same thing can be performed manually following the structure of KWIC to generate entries.
Step III: After all the index entries for a document are generated, each entry is filed at its appropriate place in the alphabetical sequence.

Example: Classification of Books in a University Library (with identification code 1279)

Step I : 
Classification Books University Library
CLASSIFICATION of Books in a University Library 1279
Books in a University Library/Classification of  1279
UNIVERSITY Library/Classification of Books in 1279
LIBRARY/Classification of Books in University  1279
Step III
Books in a University Library/Classification of 1279
CLASSIFICATION of Books in a University Library 1279
LIBRARY/Classification of Books in a University 1279
UNIVERSITY Library/Classification of Books in a 1279

The  keyword may also be in the centre as follows:
Classification of    BOOKS  in a University Library  1279
University Library CLASSIFICATION of Books in a  1279
in a University      LIBRARY/Classification of Books  1279
of Books in a        UNIV. LIBRARY/Classification    1279

Some variations in the keyword in context indexing system have been introduced to overcome its limitations and to improve its working. Important among the variants are:
1.           KWOC (Keyword Out of Context)
2.           KWAC (Keyword Augmented in Context)
3.           Key-term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)

1.2 Keyword Out of Context (KWOC)

In KWOC system, keyword or the access point is shifted to the extreme left at its normal place in the beginning of the line. It is followed by the complete title to provide complete context. The keyword and the context are written either in the same line or in two successive lines. Both the formats are displayed below.

Example-Title: Computerisation of Libraries in India

COMPUTERISATION     Computerisation of libraries in India      1289
INDIA                              Computerisation of libraries in India      1289
LIBRARIES                     Computerisation of libraries in Indian    1289

          Computerization of libraries in India  1289
Computerisation of libraries  in India   1289
Computerisation of libraries in India    1289 

These entries are then filed in an alphabetical sequence in the file of the KWOC index.

It should be noted that the changing of format in KWOC index has provided only limited improvement. Since it follows the same indexing technique there is hardly any difference in its retrieval efficiency.

1.3 Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC)

The acronym KWAC also stands for Keyword and Context. The KWAC system provides for the enrichment of the keywords of the title with additional significant words taken either from the abstract f the document or its contents. Since titles do not always represent the contents of  a document fully, the enrichment minimises this limitation. The problem of false retrieval, which is  inherent in a purely title based indexing system, is solved to some extent.
For example consider a title of a document ‘Expert System’. Here in this case the title is not clearly expressing the contents of the document. So the abstract of the document or even the contents itself may be consulted to find the significant words, which should be added to the title to make it expressive. E.g. the above example may result in, Expert  System in Library then the index should be prepared either by KWIC or by KWAC system

1.4 Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)

In the Key-Term Alphabetical index, keywords are arranged side by side without forming a sentence. Entries are prepared containing only keywords and location excluding the context.

Example: Computerisation of libraries in India
The Keytalpha index entries are:

Merits of Keyword Indexing System

1. The principle merit of keyword indexing is the speed with which it can be produced.

2. The system automatically generates the entries.

3. The system is easly to operate

4. It does not require any intellectual labour on the part of indexer.

5. The keyword index reflects current terminology in a particular subject field since words used as access points are those used by author in his title.

6. No controlled vocabulary is required.

7. Users may not remember the exact order of keywords in titles and subject headings, but are likely to remember the keywords themselves. Therefore, keyword access is more likely to result in successful retrieval than without keyword access.

Demerits of Keyword Indexing

1.  As the entries are prepared based on the title of a document, sometime the entries prepared may not be representing the embodied thoughts, i.e. in case of catchy, fanciful, non-expressive and vague titles.
2. Computer will have to be given proper ‘stop list’, otherwise unwanted entries might be prepared.
3. As the entries are arranged alphabetically, information in a specific topic get scattered throughout the index.
4. Searching for related subjects, in order to narrow or broaden the search also presents problems since no recognized hierarchical structure is incorporated in the index.

Search Strategy for Keyword Indexes

In the keyword indexes significant terms of the titles of documents are arranged alphabetically, each having its context and the identification number. There is no vocabulary control and, therefore, related or identical subjects are scattered throughout the index file. There is no reference system to connect or correlate the related or identical topics. While formulating search strategy, these limitations should be kept in mind. The user should search under the synonyms of the words and also under the related terms. When titles are improved and supplemented by the editors, the search yields better results. The keyword indexes do not provide for the coordination of two or more search words. In search strategy this limitation should also be kept in mind. Also the users of these indexes should be prepared to search under the terms with alternative, spelling singular plurals, synonyms and near synonyms. Because of the uncontrolled vocabulary, the number of search terms is considerably enlarged necessitating more search efforts.

Despite the deficiencies, the keyword index has been quite popular during the last four decades. A number of evaluation studies have indicated that keyword indexes may offer several advantages over others. The continued growth of machine readable database has shown that the use of keyword indexes works well. The problem of unexpressive titles is solved to a considerable extent by editorial intervention. It is true that Key Word Indexes as such will not facilitate comprehensive search. Production of any index taking care of comprehensive search takes time, money and effort. Key Word Index was never envisaged to provide comprehensive subject index. It is a mechanism of providing quick and specific subject approach to information which Luhn envisaged it to be.

3.2       Citation Indexing
Citation  index is an ordered list of cited articles along with a list of citing articles. The cited article is identified as the reference and the citing article as the source. The index is prepared utilising the association of ideas existing between the cited and the citing articles, as the fact is that whenever a recent paper  cites a previous paper there always exists a relation of ideas, between the two papers.
Examples of Citation Index:
1. Science Citation Index-Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information, 1963-
2.    Social Science Citation Index – Philadelphia; ISI, 1973-
Citation indexes have proved to be better than the other indexes and can be prepared without much complications.  They are also amenable to computer manipulation.
Citation indexing provides subject access to bibliographic records in an indirect but powerful manner. Since the citation or reference to another scholar’s work implies an intellectual connection between citing and cited publications, one can make the fundamental assumption that the citing and cited publications deal with either the same or closely related subjects.

Advantages of Citation Indexing

1. Citation indexing eliminates the need, for intellectual indexing; it has the potential of being automated to a large degree.

2. Citation indexing overcomes the problems of vocabulary and semantic difficulties.

3. It overcomes language barrier, because citation patterns, especially in scientific disciplines, are similar across languages.

4. Literature searches using citation indexing are highly effective in gathering a large number of relevant documents quickly.

5. Objective factors such as the number of citations and frequency of being cited, can be used in introducing various weighting and other procedures to improve the quality and effectiveness of retrieval.

Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 
Information Access Through The Subject

Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-08-23 | Written 2016-08-23]

Permalink: https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2016/08/derived-indexing.html

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Saturday, August 20, 2016

Other Title Information : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

Other Title Information is described in this new entry in Glossary of Library & Information Science.


  • Other Title Information
  • What Other Title Information Includes and what it does not?
  • Does Other Title Information need to be supplied?
  • Is Other Title Information a Core Element in RDA?
  • Where is data recorded for Other Title Information in MARC 21?
  • Where are the rules for recording Other Title Information in RDA?
  • What are the Sources of Information for Other Title Information?
  • How to record Other Title Information if it is in more than one language or script?
  • How to record Other Title Information if it is in more than one?
  • RDA Cataloging Examples of recording Other Title Information in MARC 21
  • References

OTHER TITLE INFORMATION  Other Title Information is information (words or phrases, e.g. a subtitle) that appears in conjunction with, and is subordinate to, the title proper of a resource. Other Title Information is a statement appearing on the item that provides additional information about the nature of the item, its purpose, scope, form (e.g., a biography), genre (e.g., a mystery novel), contents (e.g., conference papers) or subject. It may include any phrase appearing with a title proper that is indicative of the character, contents, etc., of the resource or the motives for, or occasion of, its production, publication, etc. In the bibliographic record, Other Title Information is transcribed following the whole or part of the title proper or parallel title to which it pertains. If the information is lengthy, it may be given in a note or may be abridged.

What Other Title Information Includes and what it does not?

Other title information includes subtitles, variant-titles etc. Other title information does not include title proper, parallel titles, alternative titles, part titles, section titles, cover titles, binder’s titles, running titles, spine titles, sleeve titles, etc.

Does Other Title Information need to be supplied?

For monographs generally do not supply other title information but it may be supplied for cartographic resources and moving image resources. For example, if a cartographic resource lacks an indication of the geographic area or subject matter then addition can be made like [Washington D.C.] when title proper is a generic one, such as Road atlas. In the case of a moving image resource an addition can be made [trailer] in other title information, if only the title of the movie is given on the resource. The cataloger should indicate that these additions were not found on the resource, either through notes or by placing the metadata in square brackets.

Is Other Title Information a Core Element in RDA?

Other Title Information is not RDA Core Element, but it is a Core Element for LC-PCC. According to LC-PCC practice, Other Title Information is a core element for monographs. For serials, transcribe other title information if it provides clarification or support to the title proper that otherwise might appear misleading without the other title information. For rare serials, transcribe other title information according to DCRM(S).

Where is data recorded for Other Title Information in MARC 21?

This data is recorded in MARC field 245 $b

Where are the rules for recording Other Title Information in RDA?

Look at RDA 2.3.4

What are the Sources of Information for Other Title Information?

Record other title information appearing on the same source of information as the title proper applying the basic instructions on recording titles given under 2.3.1. Based on the definition that includes the words “in conjunction with” and “subordinate to”, other title information generally should not be taken from any source other than the place where the title proper is found. Hence if there is a title page that supplies the title proper, other title information should not be taken from the cover or a colophon.

How to record Other Title Information if it is in more than one language or script?

If Other Title Information appears in more than one language or script, record the other title information that is in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, record the other title information that appears first.

How to record Other Title Information if it is in more than one?

There may be more than one instance of other title information, in that case generally they should be recorded in the order in which they appear on the source

RDA Cataloging Examples of recording Other Title Information in MARC 21:

245 10 $a Information access through the subject : $b an annotated bibliography / $c by Salman Haider.

245 10 $a Titanic : $b a novel / $c by Sally Wong.

245 00 $a Cancer research : $b official organ of the American Association for Cancer Research Inc.

245 10 $a War of the worlds : $b a graphic novel adapted from the classic tale of an alien invasion by H.G. Wells / $c written by Stephen Stern ; illustrated by Arne Starr ; lettering and special effects, Dane Cote ; art production, Bill Maus.

245 00 $a Library and information science abstracts : $b LISA.

245 10 $a My experiments with truth : $b the definitive autobiography / $c M.K. Gandhi.

245 13 $a  An A-Z of employment law : $b a complete reference source for managers / $c Peter Chandler.

245 00 $a L.I.S. : $b library and information science.

  1. RDA Toolkit. http://access.rdatoolkit.org/ [subscription required] (accessed August 2016). 
  2. Joudrey, Daniel N.; Taylor, Arlene G.; Miller, David P. RDA basics. In Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, 11th Ed.; Library and Information Science Text Series; Libraries Unlimited: Santa Barbara, California, 2015. 
  3. Chan, Lois Mai; Salaba, Athena. Cataloging and Classification: An Introduction, 4th Ed.; Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Lanham, 2016.
Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-08-20 | Written 2016-08-20]

Permalink: https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2016/08/other-title-information-glossary-library.html

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Title Proper : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science

TITLE PROPER  Title proper is the chief name of a resource or a bibliographic item, usually found on the preferred sources of information. It is the title which is normally used when citing the resource. The title proper includes the short title and alternative title, the numerical designation of a part/section and the name of a part/section. The title proper excludes any parallel titles, other title information, and parallel other title information.

See also:

Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-08-20 | Written 2016-08-20]

Permalink: https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2016/08/title-proper-glossary-library.html

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Friday, August 19, 2016

Title : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science

TITLE  A title is a word, character, phrase, sentence, or a group of words and/or characters appearing on an information source that names a resource or a work contained in it, for the purposes of identification and reference. Title is the distinguishing name of the resource (or the work contained within) which is usually identified from the preferred sources of information of a resource.

See also:

Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-08-19 | Written 2016-08-19]

Permalink: https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2016/08/title-glossary-of-library-information.html

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Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Library and Information Science Dissertations and Theses

Librarian's Reference Directory


Best Reference Sources for Doctoral and Master's Dissertations and Thesis in Library and Information Science; LIS Ph.D. and MLIS Thesis and Dissertations. 

General reference databases are listed first which is followed by the repositories and digital libraries of individual countries and universities. It also provides information on the online availability of electronic theses through centrally-maintained digital repositories which not only ensure easy access and archiving of doctoral theses but will also help in raising the standard and quality of research.

Theses and dissertations are known to be the rich and unique source of information, often the only source of research work that does not find its way into various publication channels. Theses and dissertations remain an untapped and under-utilized asset, leading to unnecessary duplication and repetition.

This entry Library and Information Science Dissertations and Theses in the Librarian's Reference Directory is expected to be the most comprehensive listing of sources of information on LIS dissertations and theses. It will enable LIS researchers with wider dissemination of information leading to improved referral and citation. It will not only bring more visibility and greater recognition to the researchers and their work but also help improve their rankings. It will be of immense help to the researchers in the task of literature search and review of related areas. Besides the literature reviews, the availability of comprehensive sources of LIS dissertations and thesis will give information on research studies already undertaken which will also help future researchers in identifying and formulating the topic of their research. It will eliminate the possibilities for researchers ending up pursuing a topic of research that has already been undertaken at the same or other universities.


  • General Collections of LIS Dissertations and Thesis
  • LIS Dissertations and Thesis from Canada
  • LIS Dissertations and Thesis from the United States
  • LIS Dissertations and Thesis from India
  • LIS Dissertations and Thesis from Pakistan


ProQuest Dissertations & ThesesSubscription Required - The largest single repository of graduate dissertations and theses. Includes 3.8 million works – grows by 100K each year International scope – deposits from universities in 88 countries. Accessed by 3000 institutions – over 45,000 downloads every month.
ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
ProQuest - click to enlarge

PQDT Open (ProQuest) - Free - PQDT Open provides the full text of open access dissertations and theses free of charge. You can quickly and easily locate dissertations and theses relevant to your discipline, and view the complete text in PDF format.
PQDT Open (ProQuest)
PQDT OPEN - click to enlarge

WorldCat Dissertations and ThesesSubscription Required - All dissertations, theses and published material based on theses cataloged by OCLC members and included in WorldCat. This database provides fast and convenient access to the dissertations and theses available in OCLC member libraries. Many theses are available electronically, at no charge, directly from the publishing institution.

WorldCat.org - Free - In advanced search under the tab "Content" select "Thesis/dissertations" - WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database.
WorldCat.org - click to enlarge

Center for Research Libraries - Free - Dissertations From Outside the U.S. and Canada (CRL) - In advance search select "Dissertations" in "Location" tab) - The Center for Research Libraries, a consortial library in Chicago holds about 750,000 foreign doctoral dissertations, but not all of them are cataloged. You can order the dissertations and other materials they own through Interlibrary Loan and keep them for a relatively long period of time. If you do not find the title you want, please contact the person dealing with publication requests at CRL: they will order those dissertations that are not already held.
Center for Research Libraries
CRL - click to enlarge

e-LiS (E-Prints in Library & Information Science) - Free - In Advance Search under "Item type" select "thesis" - Established in 2003, e-LIS is an international digital repository for Library and Information Science (LIS). It has grown to include a team of volunteer editors and support for 22 languages. The development of an international LIS network has been stimulated by the extension of the Open Access concept to LIS works and facilitated by the dissemination of material within the LIS community. These are some of the reasons for the success of e-LIS. In a few years, e-LIS has been established as the largest international open repository in the field of library and information science.
e-LiS (E-Prints in Library & Information Science)
E-LIS - click to enlarge

OpenThesis - Free - OpenThesis is a free repository of theses, dissertations, and other academic documents, coupled with powerful search, organization, and collaboration tools.
OpenThesis - click to enlarge

Open Access Theses and Dissertations - Free - OATD.org aims to be the best possible resource for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published around the world. Metadata (information about the theses) comes from over 1100 colleges, universities, and research institutions. OATD currently indexes 3,236,273 theses and dissertations.
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
OATD - click to enlarge

NDLTD (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations) - Free - The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) is an international organization dedicated to promoting the adoption, creation, use, dissemination, and preservation of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). It supports electronic publishing and open access to scholarship in order to enhance the sharing of knowledge worldwide.
NDLTD (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations)
NDLTD - click to enlarge


Theses Canada PortalFree - Guide to the 300,000 or so theses held in the Library and Archives Canada Collection. About 50,000 are online.


IDEALS (Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship) - Free -  IDEALS Home - School of Information Sciences - Student Publications and Research - Library and Information Science - Dissertations and Theses - Library and Information Science.

Digital Library of Information Science & Technology (DLIST) - Free - Dissertations - The University of Arizona Campus Repository - There is a drop-down menu in front of "Search", select "UA Theses and Dissertation" - The UA Dissertations Collection provides open access to dissertations produced at the University of Arizona, including dissertations submitted online from 2005-present, and dissertations from 1924-2006 that were digitized from paper and microfilm holdings.


Shodhganga - Free - A reservoir of Indian Theses - The Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. The repository has the ability to capture, index, store, disseminate and preserve ETDs submitted by the researchers.


LIS doctoral theses at Pakistan Research Repository - Free - The aim of this service is to maintain a digital archive of all Ph.D. theses produced indigenously to promote the intellectual output. It provides a free, single-entry access point to view the manuscript of research executed, and distribute this information as widely as possible. 

Please suggest new resources be added to this list. Do you find it useful? If yes, then please share it with your friends and online network. "Sharing is Caring." Kindly provide your valuable feedback to make this entry more useful for the researchers of Library and Information Science.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.

Glossary of Library & Information Science

  • Last Updated 2016-11-23 [Added External Links]
  • Updated 2016-08-09
  • Written 2016-07-12
  • Sandra K. Roe, Librarian, Illinois State University, Editor, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly  [July 17, 2016, e-mail] -- Wow.  This is an amazing compilation, complete with search instructions   - and such a great idea to solicit other sources from the community.  Brilliant!
  • Stephen Abram, Librarian and principal with Lighthouse Consulting Inc., and executive director of the Federation of Ontario Public Libraries  [August 1, 2016, in his blog Stephen's Lighthouse] - Great list of sources – fee and free.

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