Saturday, May 21, 2016

Subject Indexing Process

Information Access Through The Subject
Subject Indexing Process
Contents

  • What is an index?
  • What are the most trusted definitions of an index?
  • What is subject indexing?
  • What is the subject indexing process?

Index
          The term ‘index’  has been derived from the Latin word ‘indicare’ which means to indicate or to point out. Here it refers to guide to a particular concept in a document.
          Index is a systematic guide of items contained in a document or concepts derived from it. Items denote the name of the author, title, etc.; concepts may be  like classification, cataloguing, etc. To elaborate a bit more it may be said that an index is a systematic guide to the items of published literature in a collection, or concepts derived from a collection.
          The purpose of index is to locate and retrieve the needed items or concepts in a collection.
          An index is consist of entries. Each entry is a unit of an index. These entries are arranged in a systematic order.
An index consists of two parts:
(i) Descriptive part – It gives items, ideas and concepts
(ii) Location Part – It gives the location where the items or concepts has been discussed or is available.
Definitions
Chakrabortty and Chakrabarti defines an index as:
          “A systematic guide to the items of a collection or the concepts derived from it. It comprises entries arranged in a known or searchable order, with references to show where each item indexed is located.”
The British Standard B.S. 3700:1954 defines an index as:
          “A systematic guide to the location of words, concepts or other items in books, periodicals or other publications. An index  consists of series of entries appearing, not in the order in which they appear in the publication, but in some others (e.g. alphabetic) chosen to enable the users to find them quickly, together with to show where each item is located”.
The Harrod’s Librarians’ Glossary defines an index in the following ways:
1. A systematically arranged list giving enough information for each item to be traced by means of a page number or other symbol indicating its position in a sequence.
2. A systematic guide to the location of the words, concepts or other items in publications, documents and other records. An index consists of a series of entries appearing in some logical order, usually alphabetical, which enables the user to find then easily, together with references to show where each item is located.
3. A systematic guide to items contained in, or concepts derived from a collection. These items, or derived concepts, are represented by entries arranged in a known, or stated, searchable order such as alphabetical, chronological or numerical.
(ANSI  Z39.4-1968)
Subject Indexing Process
          Subject indexing is the process used for describing the subject matter of documents. Subject indexing involves assigning terms to represent what the document is about.
          Subject indexing is a crucial operation in the creation and maintenance of index file, as retrieval of  information depends to a large extent on the quality of indexing. The process of subject indexing involves basically three steps.:
Familiarization => Analysis => Representation
The  first step towards a successful index is familiarization. The indexer must become conversant with the subject content of the document. The most reliable way to determine the subject content is to read or examine the work in detail. It is always wise to look beyond the title for ascertaining the subject content of the document, e.g. table of contents, chapter headings, preface, introduction, opening phases of chapters and paragraphs, book jacket, etc. Reference sources may also be consulted and occasionally, subject specialists may have to be consulted, particularly when the subject matter in unfamiliar to the indexer.
          Subject analysis is a second step prior to the selection of index-terms. After  examining the document, the indexer needs to follow a logical approach in selecting those concepts which best express its content. Sometimes guidelines are provided that may go same way towards instructing indexers in consistent identification of concepts.
          Once the subject analysis of the document is completed, the final step is to represent the selected concepts in the language of indexing system (as index entries). The indexer should be familiar with the indexing tools, and their working rules and procedures  in order to ensure that concepts are organised in a usable and accessible form.

Source: (Chapter 2) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 
Information Access Through The Subject

The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, Aligarh Muslim University, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

AUTHOR

Salman Haider - Librarian, Cataloger, Blogger

HISTORY
  • Revised 2016-05-21 
  • Written 2016-05-21
PERMALINK 
https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2016/05/subject-indexing-process.html

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Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Extended Date Time Format : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Extended Date Time Format EDTF
Extended Date Time Format (EDTF)
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

EXTENDED DATE TIME FORMAT (EDTF)  The Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) is a draft date-time standard initiated by the Library of Congress with the intention of creating more explicit date formatting and addressing date types that are not currently regulated by ISO 8601. The date time format ISO 8601 describes a number of date/time features, some of which are redundant and/or not very useful, on the other hand, there are a number of date and time format conventions in common use that are not included in ISO 8601. EDTF responds to a need for a date/time string more expressive than ISO 8601 can support. Current suggestions for additions are being noted and discussed within the EDTF community with the intention of formalizing the EDTF as an ISO 8601 amendment or as an extension to other Web-based date standards. EDTF defines features to be supported in a date/time string, features considered useful for a wide variety of applications.

Contents

  • Extended Date Time Format
  • Availability of EDTF
  • Features and Structure of EDTF
  • Adoption of EDTF
  • Examples of EDTF
  • Tools for EDTF
  • Used for
  • References


Availability of EDTF 

The draft of Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) specification is available at http://www.loc.gov/standards/datetime/pre-submission.html

Features and Structure of EDTF

There are three levels of support in the EDTF allowing an organization to implement only the most basic level (0), the first two levels (0 and 1), or the full complement of options (levels 0-2). Level 0 is a profile of ISO 8601 and includes features supported by ISO 8601, while levels 1 and 2 include extensions to the features in ISO 8601 to allow for additional date types. Level 1 includes simple extensions and level 2 includes more complex extensions. Each level contains all of the functionality for the previous levels.

Adoption of EDTF 

Although EDTF is still in a draft state, it has been established and formalized for usage. The Library of Congress has integrated the EDTF into other standards managed by the organization, such as the Metadata Authority Description Standard (MADS), Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS), Preservation Metadata standard (PREMIS), and Metadata Object Description Standard (MODS). In 2012, the University of North Texas (UNT) Libraries implemented the Library of Congress Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) into the metadata guidelines for their digital holdings which now contain more than 460,000 records. Other institutions are also considering implementing EDTF for different applications. EDTF format is used in the MARC 21 filed 046 in the Name Authority Records in cataloging in Resource Description and Access (RDA). The current LC-PCC best practice suggests, "When supplying dates in field 046, use the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) schema in all cases except for centuries."

Examples of EDTF
  • year, month, and day (e.g. 2016-05-10)
  • year and month (e.g. 2016-10)
  • year (e.g. 2016)
  • date and time (e.g. 2001-02-03T09:30:01)
  • interval (date range) (e.g. 1906-08/1910-12)
  • For detailed examples of EDTF dates see RDA Blog article: EDTF Date - 046 - RDA Cataloging Examples
Tools for EDTF

USED FOR
  • EDTF

REFERENCES
  1. Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) 1.0. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/standards/datetime/pre-submission.html (accessed May 2016).
  2. Haider, S. EDTF Date - 046 - RDA Cataloging Examples, posted 9/5/16. http://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2015/09/edtf-date-046-rda-cataloging-examples.html (accessed May 2016).
  3. Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF), Implementations. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/standards/datetime/implementations.html (accessed May 2016)
  4. Tarver, H.; Phillips, M. In Lessons Learned in Implementing the Extended Date/Time Format in a Large Digital Library, International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Copenhagen, Denmark, Oct 13-16, 2016; Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: United States, 2016. http://dcevents.dublincore.org/IntConf/dc-2013/paper/view/183/78 (accessed May 2016).
  5. Phillips, M. Using the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF). Mark E. Phillips Journal, posted 1/18/15. http://vphill.com/journal/post/4112/ (accessed May 2016).

SEE ALSO

ARTICLE AUTHOR

ARTICLE HISTORY 
  • Last Updated: 2017-12-24 
  • Written: 2016-05-10

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback.
  • This article is widely discussed, appreciated, cited, referred, and hyperlinked. Some places where it is discussed and referred are given below.
  • GitHub

PERMALINK

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Saturday, May 7, 2016

ISO 8601 : Glossary of Library & Information Science

ISO 8601
ISO 8601
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
ISO 8601  ISO 8601 describes an internationally accepted way to represent dates and times using numbers. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times. When dates are represented with numbers they can be interpreted in different ways. For example the date of writing of this glossary entry, 05/07/16 could mean May 7, 2016, or July 5, 2016. On an individual level this uncertainty can be very frustrating, in a business context it can be very expensive. Organizing meetings and deliveries, writing contracts and buying airplane tickets can be very difficult when the date is unclear. ISO 8601 tackles this uncertainty by setting out an internationally agreed way to represent dates: YYYY-MM-DD. For example, May 7, 2016 is represented as 2016-05-07.

The Library of Congress has initiated a draft date-time standard known as Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) with the intention of creating more explicit date formatting and addressing date types that are not currently regulated by ISO 8601. The EDTF is formalized as an ISO 8601 amendment or as an extension to other Web based date standards. EDTF format is used in the MARC 21 filed 046 in the Name Authority Records in cataloging in Resource Description and Access (RDA). The current LC-PCC best practice suggests, "When supplying dates in field 046, use the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) schema in all cases except for centuries."


USED FOR

  • Date and Time Format

REFERENCES
  1. Date and time format - ISO 8601
  2. EDTF Date - 046 - RDA Cataloging Examples 

SEE ALSO

ARTICLE AUTHOR

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Last Updated: 2016-12-24 
  • Written: 2016-05-07

PERMALINK



FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback.
  • This article ISO 8601 is widely discussed, appreciated, cited, referred, and hyperlinked. Some places where it is discussed and referred are given below.
  • Institut de l'information scientifique et technique (English: Institute of Scientific and Technical Information) [French National Centre for Scientific Research, France] 

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