Tuesday, December 26, 2017

Library and Information Science

Library and Information Science
Library and Information Science
  1. Library and Information Science 
  2. Library and Information Science Tweets: Top 10 Excellent Twitter Tweets About Libraries Librarians and Library and Information Science 
  3. Library and Information Science Infographics: Top 10 Excellent Infographics About Libraries Librarians and Library and Information Science 

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)


Library of Congress Subject Headings is the list of headings produced from the subject authority file maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records, and published annually. It is popularly known by its abbreviation as LCSH and is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase subject authority file.

Sunday, December 10, 2017


COMPASS (Computer Aided Subject System)


PRECIS  was intended to be a complete subject statement in a form suitable for a printed bibliography, and this was not necessarily the best format for online searching.

Saturday, December 9, 2017


BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework)
BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework)

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community.¹ 

Friday, December 8, 2017

What are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship?


What are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship?

(a) Canons of Cataloguing 

(b) Colon Classification

(c) Five Laws

(d) Five Laws of Library Science

Friday, December 1, 2017

How many entity groups does FRBR describe?


How many entity groups does FRBR describe?

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 6

(d) 4

Of the following International Cataloguing Principles, which comes first and should always be kept in mind when providing bibliographic descriptions and access points?


Of the following International Cataloguing Principles, which comes first and should always be kept in mind when providing bibliographic descriptions and access points?

(a) Accuracy

(b) Representation

(c) Convenience of the user

(d) Economy

(e) Consistency and standardization

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)

STATEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUING PRINCIPLES (ICP) 2016  by IFLA Cataloguing Section and IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code

The Raw Facts and Figures are Called?


The Raw Facts and Figures are Called?

(a) Intelligence

(b) Knowledge

(c) Information

(d) Data

Thursday, November 30, 2017



KNOWLEDGE  Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.



DATA  Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data is an anthropologist's handwritten note about his or her interviews with indigenous people. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Research is an effort?


Research is an effort?

(a) To discover knowledge

(b) To discover and develop knowledge

(c) To verify the knowledge

(d) To discover, develop, and verify knowledge



RESEARCH  Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

Friday, November 10, 2017



Z39.50  Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client–server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?


What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?

(a) Library functions

(b) Library operations

(c) Library automation

(d) Automatic library

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Library Automation

Library Automation

LIBRARY AUTOMATION  Library automation refers to the use of computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

What is a computer?


What is a computer?

(a) It is a manual machine

(b) It is a calculating machine

(c) It is an electronic calculating machine

(d) It is a simple machine

Monday, November 6, 2017



COMPUTER  Computer is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Saturday, November 4, 2017

What are the three levels of management?


What are the three levels of management? (What are the three levels of management in libraries)

(a) Top, middle, and bottom

(b) Top, middle, and lower

(c) First, second, and third

(d) Primary, secondary, and tertiary

Thursday, October 5, 2017


Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
MANAGEMENT  Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization.

Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) and Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.

Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:

  • Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors, a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization, set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers provide direction to the middle managers who report to them.
  • Middle managers, examples of which would include branch managers, regional managers and section managers, provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
  • Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.
In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.


The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories:
  • Top level / Administrative level
  • Middle level / Executory
  • Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board.

These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.


The top or senior layer of management consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. Different organizations have various members in their C-suite, which may include a Chief Financial Officer, Chief Technology Officer, and so on. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the operations of the entire organization. They set a "tone at the top" and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the overall direction of the organization. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Senior managers are accountable to the shareholders, the general public and to public bodies that oversee corporations and similar organizations. Some members of the senior management may serve as the public face of the organization, and they may make speeches to introduce new strategies or appear in marketing.

Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding of competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for implementing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and shareholder communication.


Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance.

Middle management is the midway management of a categorized organization, being secondary to the senior management but above the deepest levels of operational members. An operational manager may be well-thought-out by middle management, or may be categorized as non-management operate, liable to the policy of the specific organization. Efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization, since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.

Their functions include:
  • Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.
  • Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.
  • Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.
  • Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.

Lower managers include supervisors, section leaders, forepersons and team leaders. They focus on controlling and directing regular employees. They are usually responsible for assigning employees' tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring the quality and quantity of production and/or service, making recommendations and suggestions to employees on their work, and channeling employee concerns that they cannot resolve to mid-level managers or other administrators. First-level or "front line" managers also act as role models for their employees. In some types of work, front line managers may also do some of the same tasks that employees do, at least some of the time. For example, in some restaurants, the front line managers will also serve customers during a very busy period of the day.

Front-line managers typically provide:
  • Training for new employees
  • Basic supervision
  • Motivation
  • Performance feedback and guidance
Some front-line managers may also provide career planning for employees who aim to rise within the organization.


Managers can be categorized in a number of ways.  Most commonly, we think of them in vertical hierarchy. They usually work at three levels, viz. Top, Middle and Lower level of the organization. The Managers at top or nearer to the top have broader responsibilities and authority than those at lower levels.  According to Stueart and Moran, various organisations including libraries have three levels of management as under:
  • Top Management
  • Middle Management
  • Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

Top Management

It includes directors, associate directors and assistant directors in the large libraries. They are responsible to set policies for the entire organisation and are responsible for its overall management.  They act as leaders and have wide powers as wells responsibilities.

Middle Management 

They are in–charge of specific sub-units of the organization. In the libraries, they are heads of the department or Branch Librarians. Their responsibilities are confirmed to the successful functioning of the department concerned. They also serve as liaisons between top management and supervisors.

Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

They act as supervisors of the junior staff and lead the activities of individual workers in carrying out the day to day work of the organisation/library. These managers implement the procedures and processes that allow their units to work effectively and efficiently.
But the above mentioned hierarchy in the management is being distributed more widely throughout the organizations these days. This change can be seen in all types of organisations including libraries and information centres. The emphasis is being given to team work now-a-days.


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

  1. Wikipedia. Management. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management (accessed October 10, 2017)
  2. Levels of management. Management Study Guide http://managementstudyguide.com/management_levels.htm (accessed October 10, 2017)



  • Written: 2017-10-06 


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What is information?


What is information?

(a) Explosion of knowledge

(b) Human knowledge

(c) Process of achieving knowledge

(d) Product of different types of human activities and events

Sunday, October 1, 2017


Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
INFORMATION  Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.

Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of anything. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.

Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a sequence of signals). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication.

Information reduces uncertainty. The uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that. The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used. For example, the information encoded in one "fair" coin flip is log2(2/1) = 1 bit, and in two fair coin flips is log2(4/1) = 2 bits.

The concept that information is the message has different meanings in different contexts.[3] Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

  1. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information (accessed October 2, 2017)



  • Written: 2017-10-02 


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Reference service is the personal service to each reader in helping them to find the document - who gave this definition?


Reference service is the personal service to each reader in helping them to find the document - who gave this definition?

(a) M. Hutchins

(b) S. R. Ranganathan

(c) Lois Shores

(d) J. H. Shera

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Reference Service

Reference Service
Reference Service
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
REFERENCE SERVICE  Ranganathan defined Reference Service as "A Personal service to each reader in helping him to find the documents answering the interest at the moment pin-pointedly, exhaustively and expeditiously.

  • Library Reference Service 


  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

  1. Salman Haider's MLIS notes



  • Written: 2017-09-26 


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Friday, September 22, 2017

Who categorized information sources into conventional, neo-conventional, non-conventional, and meta-documents?


Who categorized information sources into conventional, neo-conventional, non-conventional, and meta-documents?

(a) Bradford

(b) Ranganathan

(c) Hanson

(d) Grogan

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Sunday, September 17, 2017

What is FRBR?


What is FRBR?

(a) A content designation tool

(b) A data model

(c) A cataloging code or standard

(d) All of above

(e) None of above

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?


Important information and facts to remember covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of pieces of information in LIS will act not only as a ready reference knowledge bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world.

Did you know in LIS mentions and links to important information and facts which are provided as answers to the questions given in the article Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

A Featured LIS - Did You Know? appears first with a link to the original blog post for the question.

A syllabus is provided then, which divides the whole LIS field into XI units.

This is followed by Libary and Information Science - Did You Know? which are grouped under different units.


  • Top 10 Facts Did You Know in Library and Information Science (LIS)?
  • Library and Information Science Syllabus
  • Library and Information Science - Did You Know?



Unit I - Information and its Communication
  • Information, Information Science, Information Society 
  • Information as a Resource / Commodity 
  • Information Transfer Cycle--Generation, Collection, Storage, and Dissemination 
  • Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-Economic Development, Technology transfer
  • Communication--Channel, Barriers 
  • Intellectual Property Rights--Concept, Copyright, Censorship--Print and Non-print Media 
  • Library and Information Policy at the National Level
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
  • Laws of Library Science 
  • Library Resource Sharing and Networking 
  • Library Movement and Library Legislation 
  • Library Extension Services
  • Library and Information Science Education
  • Library and Information Profession
  • Library Associations in India, UK, and the USA, and other countries--ILA, IASLIC, IATLIS, SIS, LA, ASLIB, SLA and ALA
  • Library Associations OrganizationS at International Level--FID, IFLA, and UNESCO, etc.
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources
  • Sources of Information--Primary, Secondary and Tertiary--Documentary and Non-documentary
  • Reference Sources--Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources, Biographical sources, Year Books/Almanacs, Directories and Handbooks, Statistical (salient features and evaluation)
  • Bibliographical Sources--Bibliographies, Union Catalogues, Indexing and Abstracting Journals (salient features and evaluations)
  • E-documents, E-books, E-journals
  • Databases--Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text--Evaluation
Unit IV - Reference and Information Services
  • Reference and Information Services, Referral Service
  • Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest Service, Trend Report
  • Online Services, Translation Services, Reprographic Services
Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
  • Organization/Management of Knowledge/Information
  • Modes of formation of subjects
  • Library Classification--Cannon and Principles
  • Library Classification Schemes--DDC, UDC, CC, LCC, etc.
  • Library Cataloguing--Cannons and Principles
  • Library Cataloguing Codes--CCC, AACR-II, RDA, etc.
  • Bibliographic Records--International Standards--ISBD, MARC, CCF, BIBFRAME
  • Indexing--Pre-coordinate, Post-coordinate
  • Vocabulary Control--Thesaurus, List of Subject Headings, LCSH
  • Databases--Search Strategies, Boolean Operators
  • Knowledge Management
Unit VI - Library Management
  • Management--Principles, Functions, School of Thought
  • Planning, Organization Structure
  • Decision making
  • System Study--Analysis, Evaluation, and Design
  • Collection Development--Books, Serials, Non-book Materials--Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP)
  • Human Resources Management--Manpower Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation, Delegation of Authority
  • Financial Management--Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost Benefit Analysis
  • Library Buildings and Equipment
  • Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centers and Services
  • Marketing Information Product and Services
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
Unit VII - Computers and Information Technology
  • Information Technology--Components; Impact of IT on Society
  • Computers--Hardware, Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices
  • Telecommunication--Transmission media, Switching systems, Bandwidth, Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication
  • Fax, Email, Tele conferencing / video conferencing, Bulletin Board Service, Teletext, Videotex, Voice Mail
  • Networking--Concepts, Topologies, Types--LAN, MAN, WAN
  • Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia, 
  • Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnections (OSI)
Unit VIII - Information Systems and LIS Organizations and Networks
  • Library Automation--Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware, and Software Selection, OPAC
  • INTERNET--Components, Services, Browsing--Web Browsers, Search Engines, Meta-Data, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • National and International Information Systems--NISSAT, NASSDOC, INSDOC, DESIDOC, INIS, AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC, etc.
Unit IX - Research Methodology
  • Types of Research--Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary
  • Research Design
  • Scientific Method, Hypothesis, Data Collection, Sampling
  • Methods of Research--Historical, Descriptive, Case Study, Survey, Comparative and Experimental
  • Statistical Methods, Data Analysis
  • Report Writing
  • Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services
  • Bibliometrics
Unit X - Libraries and its Users
  • Types of Libraries--National, Public, Academic, and Special--Objectives, structures, and functions
  • Digital Libraries (Concept)
  • Virtual Libraries (Concept) 
  • Types of Users, User's Studies, User's Education 
  • Role of UGC in the Growth and Development of libraries and information centers in institutes of Higher Education in India, Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF).
  • Growth and development of libraries and information centers in different countries
Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics
  • Miscellaneous topics in LIS not covered by contents of Units I-X. 


Click the questions to view Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog article of the question with the answer and further study references.

Unit I - Information and its Communication
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources
Unit IV - Reference and Information Services
Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics



  • Last Updated: 2017-11-25
  • Written: 2017-09-17

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Saturday, September 9, 2017

Five Laws of Library Science

Five Laws of Library Science


The 5 Laws of Library Science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931.

These laws are:
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his / her book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

What is referred to raw data when they are processed and converted into meaningful form?


What is referred to raw data when they are processed and converted into meaningful form? 

(a) Knowledge

(b) Information

(c) Processed data

(d) Organized data

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records FRBR


Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR /ˈfɜːrbər/) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogs and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloging standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).

What does the acronym FRBR stand for?


What does the acronym FRBR stand for?

(a) Functional Requirements for Better Records

(b) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

(c) Functional Records for Big Research Libraries

Sunday, August 13, 2017

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)
PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
PRECIS (PRESERVED CONTEXT INDEX SYSTEM)   PRECIS is an acronym for PREserved Context Index System or PREserved Context Indexing System. PRECIS is a computer assisted pre-coordinate subject indexing system developed by Derek Austin in 1968 as a result of long research which the Classification Research Group (CRG) undertook to give a new general classification for information control. In 1969 British librarians Derek Austin and Peter Butcher issued PRECIS: A rotated subject index system, published by the Council of the British National Bibliography. This appears to be the first published report on an innovative method for adding subject data in the form of descriptors to the computerized MARC record. This system is considered as the most important development in alphabetical approach to subject specification in recent years.

The system aims at providing an alphabetical subject index which is able to cater to the variant approaches of the users along with their context. In order to achieve this objective, the system arranges the components of a document,  into a significant sequence, thus, all the important components in the string are used as approach points. Simultaneously, the terms are displayed in such a fashion that every term is related to the next term in a context dependent way. Moreover, the system is amenable to computer operation, which further adds to the advantage of the system as the entries will be prepared and arranged automatically by the computer.


PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) 
  • Essential Features of PRECIS
  • Concept of PRECIS
  • PRECIS Indexing Procedure
  • Primary Operators
  • Secondary Operators
  • Primary Codes
  • Format of Entry
  • Filing Order
  • Conclusion

Essential Features of PRECIS

PRECIS  has the following important features:-
  1. The system derives headings that are co-extensive with the subject at all access points.
  2. It is not bound to any classification scheme.
  3. The terms are context dependent in nature, which enables the users to identify the entries correctly.
  4. The entries are generated automatically by the computer references between semantically related terms.
  5. It also provides an adequate arrangement of references between semantically related terms.
  6. It is a flexible system, as it is able to incorporate newly emerging terms accordingly.
  7. It has introduced the PRECIS  table which puts forth a set pattern for the preparation of entries, thus bringing about consistency in work.

Concept of PRECIS

The concept of PRECIS deals with terms, strings, and role operators.

Term: A term is a verbal representation of a concept. It may consist of one or more words.

String: An ordered sequence of component terms, excluding articles connectives, prepositions, etc., preceded by role operators is called a string. The string represents the subject of the document.

Role Operators: The Operators are the code symbols which show the function of the component term and fix its position in the strings. These role operators are meant for the guidance of the indexers only and do not appear in the index entry.

Preparation of String

The main or the most important activity in PRECIS indexing is the formation of the string. The preparation of string constitutes the following points:

(i)     Context dependence
(ii)    One-to-one relationship
(iii)   Provision of role operators

The component terms are arranged in such a way that they are context dependent, at the same time they are interrelated to each other.

PRECIS Indexing Procedure
  • Analyzing the document and identifying key concepts.
  • Organizing the concepts into a subject statement based on the principle of context dependency.
  • Assigning codes with signify the syntactical function of each term.
  • Deciding which terms should be access points and which terms would be in other positions in the index entries, and assigning further codes to achieve these results.
  • Adding further prepositions, auxiliaries, or phrases which would result in clarity and expressiveness of the resulting index entries.
  • Making supporting reference entries

Primary Operators

Environment of core concepts
  • 0 - Locations
Core concepts
  • 1 - Key system; Object of transitive action; Agent of transitive action
  • 2 - Action; Effect of action
  • 3 - Performer of transitive action
Extra-core concepts
  • 4 - View point -as-form
  • 5 - Selected instance; e.g. study region, sample population
  • 6 - Form of document; target user

Secondary Operators

Coordinate concepts
  • f - "Bound" coordinate concept
  • g - Standard coordinate concept
Dependent elements
  • p - Part; property
  • q - Member of quasi group
  • r - Assembly
Special class of action
  • s - Role identifier
  • t - Author attributed association
  • u - Two-way interaction

Primary Codes

Theme interlinks
  • $x - 1st concept in coordinate theme
  • $y - 2nd subsequent concept in theme
  • $z - Common concept
Term codes
  • $a - Common concept
  • $c - Proper name
  • $d - Place name

Format of Entry

There are three formats of making index entries through PRECIS
  1. Standard format
  2. Predicate transformation format
  3. Inverted format
Standard Format

In order to achieve the goal of context dependency and one-to-one relation, PRECIS has adopted a display format, which constitutes three parts:

Lead:  ‘Lead’ position serves as the users’ approach term, by which a user may search the index.

Qualifier: It represents the term or set of terms which qualifies the lead term to bring it into its proper context.It provides wider context to the lead term.

Display: It is the remaining part of the string which helps to preserve the context.

All the terms in the string are prepared using the PRECIS table, are then rotated according to a process known as ‘Shunting’. The structure adopted for the process is as follows:

 Lead Term                   Qualifier

The approach term is placed one by one in the lead term section, with the succeeding terms (if any) as the qualifier and the preceding terms (if any) in the display section, displaying the context of the terms.

Example: Computerisation of libraries in India
(0) India
(1) Libraries
(2) Computerisation

Libraries. Computerisation


3. COMPUTERISATION  Libraries. India

Predicate Transformation Format

The Predicate Transformation Format is used when the term representing an agent (3) appears as a lead term prefixed by one of the operators 2 or  s or  t.  When such a situation arises, 2 or s or t is shifted to Display position from the Qualifier position.

Inverted Format

PRECIS makes the use of inverted format when any term is provided the role operators (4), (5) or (6) and these terms appear as Lead terms. When it happens so, the dependent elements are presented in italics (or underlined if handwritten) after a hyphen and the terms in the Qualifier position are printed in the Display position.

Filing Order

PRECIS follows a two-line three-part format for the display of its entries, as a result, it follows a distinct filing order, within broad alphabetization. When a number of entries appear under similar lead terms, they are further arranged by the qualifiers as follows.

    LIBRARIES Bangladesh
Personnel.  Recruitment

Inter-Library Loans


PRECIS was first adopted by BNB, later on, a number of agencies went to accept the system. Among the other national bibliographies that adopted PRECIS are  Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa. Besides these, a number of libraries in Britain are practicing it. A number of pilot projects are also practicing and for creating indexes to statistical, public and other records. PRECIS was replaced at the British National Bibliography (BNB) by COMPASS in 1996, which was later replaced by Library of Congress Subject Headings.

  • Preserved Context Index System
  • Preserved Context Indexing System

  1. Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.) 
    Information Access Through The Subject