Saturday, February 25, 2017

Citation Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject

CITATION INDEXING

Citation index is an ordered list of cited articles along with a list of citing articles. The cited article is identified as the reference and the citing article as the source. The index is prepared utilising the association of ideas existing between the cited and the citing articles, as the fact is that whenever a recent paper cites a previous paper there always exists a relation of ideas, between the two papers.

Examples of Citation Index

1. Science Citation Index-Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information, 1963-
2. Social Science Citation Index – Philadelphia; ISI, 1973-

Citation indexes have proved to be better than the other indexes and can be prepared without much complications.  They are also amenable to computer manipulation.

Citation indexing provides subject access to bibliographic records in an indirect but powerful manner. Since the citation or reference to another scholar’s work implies an intellectual connection between citing and cited publications, one can make the fundamental assumption that the citing and cited publications deal with either the same or closely related subjects.

Advantages of Citation Indexing

1. Citation indexing eliminates the need, for intellectual indexing; it has the potential of being automated to a large degree.

2. Citation indexing overcomes the problems of vocabulary and semantic difficulties.

3. It overcomes language barrier, because citation patterns, especially in scientific disciplines, are similar across languages.

4. Literature searches using citation indexing are highly effective in gathering a large number of relevant documents quickly.

5. Objective factors such as the number of citations and frequency of being cited, can be used in introducing various weighting and other procedures to improve the quality and effectiveness of retrieval.


Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 



The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, A.M.U, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


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Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)

Information Access Through The Subject

KEY-TERM ALPHABETICAL (KEYTALPHA)

In the Key-Term Alphabetical index, keywords are arranged side by side without forming a sentence. Entries are prepared containing only keywords and location excluding the context.
Example: Computerisation of libraries in India
The Keytalpha index entries are:
COMPUTERISATION, INDIAN, LIBRARIES  1289
INDIA, LIBRARIES, COMPUTERISATION    1289
LIBRARIES, COMPUTERISATION, INDIA    1289

Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science



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Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC)

Information Access Through The Subject

KEYWORD AUGMENTED IN CONTEXT (KWAC)

The acronym KWAC also stands for Keyword and Context. The KWAC system provides for the enrichment of the keywords of the title with additional significant words taken either from the abstract f the document or its contents. Since titles do not always represent the contents of a document fully, the enrichment minimizes this limitation. The problem of false retrieval, which is inherent in a purely title based indexing system, is solved to some extent.

For example, consider a title of a document ‘Expert System’. Here, in this case, the title is not clearly expressing the contents of the document. So the abstract of the document or even the contents itself may be consulted to find the significant words, which should be added to the title to make it expressive. E.g. the above example may result in, Expert  System in Library then the index should be prepared either by KWIC or by KWAC system 

Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 



The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, A.M.U, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


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  • Revised 2017-02-25 
  • Written 2017-02-25 

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Keyword Out of Context (KWOC)

Information Access Through The Subject

KEYWORD OUT OF CONTEXT (KWOC)

In KWOC system, keyword or the access point is shifted to the extreme left at its normal place in the beginning of the line. It is followed by the complete title to provide complete context. The keyword and the context are written either in the same line or in two successive lines. Both the formats are displayed below.

Example-Title: Computerisation of Libraries in India

FORMAT 1


COMPUTERISATION Computerisation of libraries in India 1289

INDIA Computerisation of libraries in India 1289

LIBRARIES Computerisation of libraries in Indian 1289

FORMAT 2


COMPUTERISATION
    Computerization of libraries in India 1289

INDIA
    Computerisation of libraries in India 1289

LIBRARIES
    Computerisation of libraries in India 1289

These entries are then filed in an alphabetical sequence in the file of the KWOC index.

It should be noted that the changing of format in KWOC index has provided only limited improvement. Since it follows the same indexing technique there is hardly any difference in its retrieval efficiency.

Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 



The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, A.M.U, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Revised 2017-02-25 
  • Written 2017-02-25 

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Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject

KEYWORD IN CONTEXT (KWIC) INDEXING

Keyword in Context Indexing system is based on the principle that the title of the document represents its contents. It is believed that the title of the document is one line abstract of the document. The significant words in the title indicate the subject of the document. a KWIC index makes an entry under each significant word in the title, along with the remaining part of the title to keep the context intact. The entries are derived using terms one by one as the lead term along with the entire context for each entry.

(a) Structure

Each entry in KWIC index consists of three parts

i) Keyword: Significant words of the title which serve as approach/access teems.

ii) Context: The rest of the terms of the title provided along with the keywords specifies the context fo the document.
iii) Identification or Location Code: A code (usually the social number of the entry) which provides address of the document where its full bibliographical details will be available.

In order to indicate the end of the title a “/” symbol is used. The identification code is put on the extreme right to indicate the location of the document.


(b) Indexing Process


KWIC indexing system consists of three steps

Step I : Keyword selection
Step II :Entry generation
Step III : Filing

Step I: First of all significant words or keywords are selected from the title. It is done by omitting articles, prepositions, conjunctions and others non-significant words or terms. The selection is done by the editor who marks the keywords. When a computer is used for preparing an index, the selection is done by having ‘stop list’ of non significant terms stored in it. A stop list consists of articles, prepositions and certain other common words which would be stopped from becoming the keywords. Another method of providing the correct terms f entries is by human intervention at the input stage, wherein the editor indicates the keyterms which are then picked up by the computer.

Step II: After the selection of keywords, the computer moves the title laterally in such a way that a significant word (key word) for a particular entry always appears either on the extreme left hand side or in the centre. The same thing can be performed manually following the structure of KWIC to generate entries.

Step III: After all the index entries for a document are generated, each entry is filed at its appropriate place in the alphabetical sequence.

Example: Classification of Books in a University Library (with identification code 1279)

Step I :

Classification Books University Library

StepII :

CLASSIFICATION of Books in a University Library 1279

Books in a University Library/Classification of 1279

UNIVERSITY Library/Classification of Books in 1279

LIBRARY/Classification of Books in University 1279

Step III :

Books in a University Library/Classification of 1279

CLASSIFICATION of Books in a University Library 1279

LIBRARY/Classification of Books in a University 1279

UNIVERSITY Library/Classification of Books in a 1279


The keyword may also be in the centre as follows:

Classification of BOOKS in a University Library 1279

University Library CLASSIFICATION of Books in a 1279

in a University LIBRARY/Classification of Books 1279

of Books in a UNIV. LIBRARY/Classification 1279

Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 

The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, A.M.U, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


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  • Revised 2017-02-25 
  • Written 2017-02-25 

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Title-Based Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject


TITLE BASED INDEXING

There is one part of a document in which authors themselves usually try to define the subject: the title. The title in itself is a one line summary of a document and this serve as an index point, hence, title indexes came into force. This is very simple as the important terms representing the subject of the document are selected and rotated to prepare entries from the title, moreover, this could be very easily prepared using a computer. Examples of title indexes are KWIC (Key Word In Context, KWOC (Keyword Out of Content), and KEYTALPHA (Key-Term Alphabetical).

It is important to note that the titles are not always provided in a manner to represent the subject, so title-based indexes are good only if the subject is clearly expressed in the words f the title Title-indexing is also referred to as Keyword indexing.

Keyword indexing system was originally developed by Andrea Crestadoro in 1956, under the name ‘Keywords in Titles’. He used it for the catalogue of the Manchester Public Library. H.P. Lubn of IBM revived this system under the name of Keyword In Context (KWIC) in 1958. KWIC was adopted by American Chemical Society in 1960 for its publication ‘Chemical titles’.

Keyword indexing was a significant development in the area of subject indexing. It is a totally mechanised, computerised and automated indexing system.


Source: (Chapter 3) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 



The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, A.M.U, India. Information Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.



This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


AUTHOR
HISTORY
  • Revised 2017-02-25 
  • Written 2017-02-25 
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Index

Information Access Through The Subject
INDEX
Contents

  • What is an index?
  • What are the most trusted definitions of an index?

Index
          The term ‘index’  has been derived from the Latin word ‘indicare’ which means to indicate or to point out. Here it refers to guide to a particular concept in a document.
          Index is a systematic guide of items contained in a document or concepts derived from it. Items denote the name of the author, title, etc.; concepts may be like classification, cataloguing, etc. To elaborate a bit more it may be said that an index is a systematic guide to the items of published literature in a collection or concepts derived from a collection.
          The purpose of an index is to locate and retrieve the needed items or concepts in a collection.
          An index is consist of entries. Each entry is a unit of an index. These entries are arranged in a systematic order.
An index consists of two parts:
(i) Descriptive part – It gives items, ideas and concepts
(ii) Location Part – It gives the location where the items or concepts has been discussed or is available.
Definitions
Chakrabortty and Chakrabarti defines an index as:
          “A systematic guide to the items of a collection or the concepts derived from it. It comprises entries arranged in a known or searchable order, with references to show where each item indexed is located.”
The British Standard B.S. 3700:1954 defines an index as:
          “A systematic guide to the location of words, concepts or other items in books, periodicals or other publications. An index consists of series of entries appearing, not in the order in which they appear in the publication, but in some others (e.g. alphabetic) chosen to enable the users to find them quickly, together with to show where each item is located”.
The Harrod’s Librarians’ Glossary defines an index in the following ways:
1. A systematically arranged list giving enough information for each item to be traced by means of a page number or other symbol indicating its position in a sequence.
2. A systematic guide to the location of the words, concepts or other items in publications, documents, and other records. An index consists of a series of entries appearing in some logical order, usually alphabetical, which enables the user to find then easily, together with references to show where each item is located.
3. A systematic guide to items contained in, or concepts derived from a collection. These items, or derived concepts, are represented by entries arranged in a known, or stated, searchable order such as alphabetical, chronological or numerical.
(ANSI  Z39.4-1968)
Source: (Chapter 2) Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc. 

MLIS Thesis is available and discussed in following places: 
Information Access Through The Subject

The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation in the Department of Library and Information Science, Aligarh Muslim University, IndiaInformation Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work (see Testimonials). It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.

This article forms a part of Glossary of Library & Information Science.
Glossary of Library & Information Science


AUTHOR

HISTORY
  • Revised 2017-02-25 
  • Written 2017-02-25 

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Friday, February 24, 2017

Assigned Indexing

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

ASSIGNED INDEXING

If the terms are selected from the title or the text of a document and used without any alteration as index terms, then this is referred to as natural language indexing or derived indexing. If however, the selected terms are translated or encoded into authorized terms by the help of a prescribed list, then the indexing language becomes controlled or artificial. This process is called Assigned Indexing.

Derived Indexing solely relies on information which is manifest in the document, without attempting to add to this from indexer’s own knowledge or other sources. We looked at ways in which printed indexes could be derived from information manifest in a document. We can also consider some of the ways in which files may be searched online, again using the information manifest in the document, e.g. titles, abstracts or full text. By doing so we have to face the problems of natural language. A discussion of these problems leads to the idea of assigned indexing.

If we are to use a list of words to help us in our searching, we would increase the chances of achieving successful matches if we used the same list of words to encode the appropriate words to the documents ourselves rather than rely on authors’ choice. In other words, we devise an indexing language and use this for both encoding operations: input and question. Such systems are referred to as assigned indexing systems. Assigned indexing involves an intellectual process. Subject heading schemes, thesaurus and classification schemes are the popular forms of assigned indexing.

Assigned indexing is also known as concept indexing because what we are trying to do is to identify the concepts involved in each document.

REFERENCES
  1. Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.) 
    Information Access Through The Subject
    Information Access Through The Subject

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  • Last Updated 2017-06-06
  • Written 2017-02-24

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