Sunday, October 15, 2017

Z39.50

Z39.50
Z39.50
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

Z39.50  Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client–server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record.




Contents

  • History
  • What Z39.50 Does
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Modernization Efforts


History

Work on the Z39.50 protocol began in the 1970s, and led to successive versions in 1988, 1992, 1995 and 2003. Z39.50 was originally approved by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) in 1988. The standard's maintenance agency is the Library of Congress. The Z39.50 Maintenance Agency Page, includes documentation and information related to the development and ongoing maintenance of the Z39.50 standard.


What Z39.50 Does

Z39.50 makes it possible for a user in one system to search and retrieve information from other computer systems (that have also implemented Z39.50) without knowing the search syntax that is used by those other systems. Z39.50 provides for exchange of information, such as surrogate records or full text, between otherwise non-compatible computer systems. Z39.50 makes possible for the sharing of cataloging records primarily by importing MARC records into an ILS.  Z39.50 is widely used in library environments and is often incorporated into integrated library systems and personal bibliographic reference software. Interlibrary catalogue searches for interlibrary loan are often implemented with Z39.50 queries.


Advantages and Disadvantages

The primary advantage to using Z39.50 is the cost. Some ILS software does the searching for you (i.e., the search is done from your ILS, not in the target ILS) and may charge a fee for enabling this service. The major disadvantage to using Z39.50 is that you might have to search each library individually, although there are some ILSs that will let you search a handful or so at a time. Your Integrated Library System (ILS) or library software can also be configured to OCLC database which is the largest database of library catalog records through the Z39.50. The  Library of Congress offers Z39.50 access to its collection, so it is possible to download catalog records from them which are of highest quality following modern international standards such as Resource Description and Access (RDA).


Modernization Efforts

Z39.50 is a pre-Web technology, and various working groups are attempting to update it to fit better into the modern environment. These attempts fall under the designation ZING (Z39.50 International: Next Generation), and pursue various strategies.


DID YOU KNOW

REFERENCES & FURTHER STUDY RESOURCES
  1. Library of Congress. Z39.50: Gateway to Library Catalogs. https://www.loc.gov/z3950/ (accessed October 15, 2017)
  2. Library of Congress. LC Z39.50/SRW/SRU Server Configuration Guidelines. https://www.loc.gov/z3950/lcserver.html (accessed October 15, 2017)
  3. OCLC. Getting Started with OCLC Z39.50 Cataloging. https://www.oclc.org/support/services/z3950/documentation/getting_started.en.html (accessed October 15, 2017)
  4. OCLC. Z39.50 Configuration Guide for OCLC Z39.50 Cataloging. https://www.oclc.org/support/services/z3950/documentation/config_guide.en.html (accessed October 15, 2017)
  5. British Library. Z39.50 Configuration. http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/z3950configuration.html (accessed October 15, 2017)
  6. Wikipedia. Z39.50. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z39.50 (accessed October 15, 2017)
  7. Joudrey, Daniel N.; Taylor, Arlene G.; Miller, David P. RDA basics. In Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, 11th Ed.; Library and Information Science Text Series; Libraries Unlimited: Santa Barbara, California, 2015.
  8. Moulaison, Heather Lea; Wiechert, Raegan. Crash Course in Basic Cataloging with RDA; Libraries Unlimited Crash Course Series; Libraries Unlimited: Santa Barbara, California, 2015.

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Saturday, October 14, 2017

What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?



QUESTION

What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?

(a) Library functions

(b) Library operations

(c) Library automation

(d) Automatic library

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers - LIS Quiz

ANSWER

(c) Library automation

The use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries is called Library Automation.

Library Automation

LIBRARY AUTOMATION

Library automation refers to the use of computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation.


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Library Automation

Library Automation
Library Automation
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
LIBRARY AUTOMATION  Library automation refers to the use of computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation.

Automation is a process of using the machinery for easily working and saving the human power and time. The main purpose of library automation is to free the librarians and library staff and to allow them to contribute more meaningfully to spread of knowledge and Information.Dictionary of Library Science automation is ‘the technology concerned with the design and development of the process and system that minimizes the necessity of human intervention in their operation’

DID YOU KNOW

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Wikipedia. Library Automation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Library_automation (accessed October 15, 2017)

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What is a computer?



QUESTION

What is a computer?

(a) It is a manual machine

(b) It is a calculating machine

(c) It is an electronic calculating machine

(d) It is a simple machine

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers - LIS Quiz

ANSWER

(c) It is an electronic calculating machine

Computer is an electronic calculating machine. It is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information.

Computer

COMPUTER

Computer is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.


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Computer

Computer
Computer
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
COMPUTER  Computer is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers.

Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then.

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.


DID YOU KNOW

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Wikipedia. Computer. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer (accessed October 14, 2017)

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Monday, October 9, 2017

Library and Information Science Articles and News in 2017

Library and Information Science Articles and News
Library and Information Science Articles and News
Library and Information Science Articles and News is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the latest LIS news, articles, events, and updates for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals. It is an attempt to make a representative compilation of most popular news and stories for libraries and librarians which were shared through its Google+ Community, Facebook Page and other social media platforms of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog in the year 2017.

Contents

  • Featured LIS Article News
  • Background
  • Librarianship Studies Categories (Labels)
  • Library and Information Science News




FEATURED LIS ARTICLE NEWS



Five Laws of Library Science 

The Five laws of library science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931. READ MORE: Five Laws of Library Science


BACKGROUND

I always wanted to keep myself updated with latest news and updates in Library and Information Science. I do this by reading various authoritative sources in the library and information science. Then I share it with the readers of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog which already has various followers of its social media platforms to share popular LIS news. So an idea came to my mind to create a blog article with top quality news on Library and Information Science which were most liked and shared. The newsfeed is sourced from Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Facebook Page and Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Google+ Community (which is organized based on the categories (or labels) of Librarianship Studies blog). 

Library and Information Science Articles News
Library and Information Science Articles and News

LIBRARIANSHIP STUDIES CATEGORIES (LABELS)

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology is divided into following broad categories. Categories are listed on the top left side of the blog. These categories or labels group blog posts on a specific topic of Library & Information Science.


SCOPE: About Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog.


SCOPE: On acquisitions or books, serials, e-resources, etc. in libraries in information centers. Collection Development--Books, Serials, Non-book Materials--Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP), E-documents, E-books, E-journals, Etc.


SCOPE: On cataloging and metadata. Library Cataloguing Codes--RDA and AACR-II. Library Cataloguing--Cannons and Principles. Bibliographic Records--International Standards--ISBD, MARC21, BIBFRAME, and CCF. Etc. Indexing--Pre-coordinate,Post-coordinate.


SCOPE: Theory and practice of library classification and shelflisting. Classification schemes like Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Library of Congress Classification (LCC), Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), and Colon Classification (CC). Organization of knowledge/Information. Modes of formation of subjects. Library Classification--Cannon and Principles.


SCOPE: Glossary of Library and Information Science of the Librarianship Studies and Information Technology blog. Glossary of Library & Information Science is an encyclopedic glossary and dictionary of terms and acronyms of librarianship, library science, information science, and information technology. The terms of the glossary are given an encyclopedic treatment, they are more exhaustive than a typical glossary or dictionary entry but less than an article.


SCOPE: MLIS thesis of Salman Haider covering subject access and retrieval techniques in libraries. Annotated bibliography on Subject Approaches to Information in Libraries covering Subject Headings, Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Library Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non-Bibliographic Databases etc.


SCOPE: Librarian's Reference Directory (or Librarians Reference Sources Directory) is a web directory of Library and Information Science reference sources on the World Wide Web.


SCOPE: Biography of famous librarians and history, practice, and techniques of librarianship. Description of library and information science. Library and Information Profession.


SCOPE: Famous and beautiful libraries the Library of Congress of Washington D.C., the British Library of London, and the Bodleian Library of Oxford. Library associations such as IFLA, ALA, and CILIP. Types of Libraries--National, Public, Academic, and Special (Objectives, structures, and functions).


SCOPE: Impact of libraries on society. Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-Economic Development, Technology transfer. Etc.


SCOPE: Library and digital marketing techniques and case studies. Includes social media marketing and search engine optimization.


SCOPE Study programs of top-ranked library schools or i-schools. Tutorial by noted professors of library and information science.


SCOPE: Use of technology in libraries. Databases--Search Strategies, Boolean Operators. Information Technology--Components; Impact of IT on Society. Computers--Hardware, Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices. Networking--Concepts, Topologies, Types--LAN, MAN, WAN. Library Automation--Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware, and Software Selection, OPAC. Integrated Library Systems, Digital Libraries, Virtual Libraries, Etc.


SCOPE: Theory, practice, and techniques of library and knowledge management. Management--Principles, Functions, School of Thought. Planning, Organization Structure, Decision making. Human Resources Management--Manpower Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation. Financial Management--Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost Benefit Analysis. PERT, CPM. Library Buildings and Equipment, Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centers and Services Marketing Information Product and Services, Total Quality Management (TQM).


SCOPE: Library circulation and loan activities. Types of Users, User Studies, User Education.


SCOPE: Miscellaneous topics in library and information science not cover by other Librarianship Studies blog labels.


SCOPE: Latest news in the library and information science.


SCOPE: Reference service in libraries and information centers. Reference and Information Services, Referral Service. Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest Service, Trend Report Online Services, Translation Services, Reprographic Services Etc.


SCOPE: On research methodology in the library and information science. Types of Research--Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary. Research Design. Scientific Method, Hypothesis, Data Collection, Sampling. Methods of Research--Historical, Descriptive, Case Study, Survey, Comparative and Experimental. Statistical Methods, Data Analysis. Report Writing, Bibliometrics. Etc.


SCOPE: Reviews of books, journals, databases, e-resources, software, integrated library systems, Etc.


SCOPE: About subject headings. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), MESH, Sears List of Subject Headings etc. Vocabulary Control--Thesaurus, List of Subject Headings, Etc.


LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE NEWS

Library and Information Science News in organized by broad areas "Categories (Labels)" of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog:


ACQUISITIONS & E-RESOURCES



CATALOGING & METADATA

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) - PRECIS is an acronym for PREserved Context Index System or PREserved Context Indexing System. PRECIS is a computer assisted pre-coordinate subject indexing system developed by Derek Austin in 1968 as a result of long research which the Classification Research Group (CRG) undertook to give a new general classification for information control. READ MORE: PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)

What are the Benefits of RDA? RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate. READ MORE: What are the Benefits of RDA?

Resource Description and Access (RDA) - RDA stands for “Resource Description and Access” and is the title of the standard, that is the successor to AACR2. Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Resource Description & Access (RDA) is a set of cataloging instructions based on FRBR and FRAD, for producing the description and name and title access points representing a resource. READ MORE: Resource Description and Access

RDA Bibliography - Articles, Books, Presentations, Thesis, and Videos on Resource Description and Access (RDA) & Cataloging


Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems - Nowadays most of the documents deal with complex and compound subjects, each comprising a number of components or concepts. The coordination of these component terms is either done at the input stage or at the output stage. The index in which the coordination of components (index terms) is done at the input stage, is known as a pre-coordinate index.  Coordination of index terms at the input stage means coordination of index terms at the time of preparation of the index by the indexer. In pre-coordinate indexing, a number of selected terms or keywords are coordinated by the indexer and the cards are prepared for display to the users. READ MORE: Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems

Cataloging & Metadata Services Infographics - Information and graphical representation of cataloging and metadata services. READ MORE

Index -  The term ‘index’  has been derived from the Latin word ‘indicare’ which means to indicate or to point out. Here it refers to guide to a particular concept in a document. READ MORE: Index

Title-Based Indexing - There is one part of a document in which authors themselves usually try to define the subject: the title. The title in itself is a one line summary of a document and this serve as an index point, hence, title indexes came into force. READ MORE: Title-Based Indexing

Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA) - In the Key-Term Alphabetical index, keywords are arranged side by side without forming a sentence. Entries are prepared containing only keywords and location excluding the context. READ MORE: Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)

Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing. READ MORE: Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing

Citation Indexing - Citation index is an ordered list of cited articles along with a list of citing articles. The cited article is identified as the reference and the citing article as the source.  READ MORE: Citation Indexing

Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) - In KWOC system, keyword or the access point is shifted to the extreme left at its normal place in the beginning of the line. It is followed by the complete title to provide complete context. READ MORE: Keyword Out of Context (KWOC)

Outsourcing Cataloging Tasks READ MORE

Chain Indexing - Chain Indexing or Chain Procedure is a mechanical method to derive subject index entries or subject headings from the class number of the document. READ MORE: Chain Indexing

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing) - The inherent weakness of chain indexing has been its dependence on a scheme of classification. Another weakness was its disappearing chain. READ MORE: POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)


CLASSIFICATION & SHELFLISTING



GLOSSARY OF LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCE



INFORMATION ACCESS THROUGH THE SUBJECT



LIBRARIAN'S REFERENCE DIRECTORY

Library and Information Science Videos - Library and Information Science Videos is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the finest LIS videos for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals. The videos are sourced from Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel which are organized based on the categories (or labels) of Librarianship Studies blog. READ MORE: Library and Information Science Videos


LIBRARIANS & LIBRARIANSHIP

Five Laws of Library Science 

The Five laws of library science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. READ MORE: Five Laws of Library Science

A library without librarians is a just a shed full of books. READ MORE

America’s Librarian - Carla Hayden plans to continue her career-long focus on access and technology as Librarian of Congress. READ MORE

Carla Hayden Takes Charge of the World's Largest Library. KNOW MORE

Will Librarians Be The Overseers Of The Information Age? - Julie Todaro, President of the American Library Association, ALA and Eleni Miltsakaki, founder and CEO of Choosito! sat down with Rod Berger to discuss the role of librarians in today's schools. Contrary to the widely held notion that the role of the librarian is shrinking, both Todaro and Miltsakaki make strong arguments for the increased importance of librarians as overseers of an endless stream of Internet data. Todaro and Miltsakaki agree that students, more than ever, need the guidance of librarians in their educational lives. READ MORE

The Librarian Who Guarded the Manhattan Project’s Secrets - While dodging accusations of communism, Charlotte Serber made the nuclear bomb possible. READ MORE

50 thought-provoking quotes about libraries and librarians READ MORE


LIBRARIES & ASSOCIATIONS

The Library of Congress opened its catalogs to the world. Here’s why it matters.  

Imagine you wanted to find books or journal articles on a particular subject. Or find manuscripts by a particular author. Or locate serials, music or maps. You would use a library catalog that includes facts – like title, author, publication date, subject headings and genre … … READ MORE

Universities redesign libraries for the 21st century: fewer books, more space - UC Berkeley’s newly remodeled undergraduate library is modern and sleek, with its top two floors featuring low-slung couches, a futuristic nap pod, and meeting spaces with glass walls made to be written on and colorful furniture meant to be moved. READ MORE

The 8 most beautiful new libraries in the world - Photos of beautiful libraries. READ MORE

State of America's Libraries Report 2017 - In the 21st century, libraries of all types are responding to the changing social, economic, and political impacts of living in a digital society. Academic, school, and public libraries provide services that empower people for change. Library workers’ expertise, combined with dynamic collections and digital resources, help individuals develop new skills, communicate with others through new technologies, and help make their communities better places to live. These and other library trends of the past year, including the Top Ten Most Challenged Books of 2016, are detailed in the American Library Association’s 2017 State of America’s Libraries report. READ MORE

The Future of Libraries (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) - READ MORE

The most beautiful library in every major US city READ MORE

Former National Library of France reopens after a decade of renovation work - the former site of france’s national library has reopened after years of renovation work by architects bruno gaudin and virginie brĂ©gal. located at rue de richelieu in paris, the historic complex houses the collections and reading rooms of the manuscripts department, the maps and plans branch, the coins, medals and antiques bureau, and the performing arts office. since 1993, the quadrangle has also been home to the french national art history library. READ MORE

This Is the Future of Libraries in the Digital Age - With the cyberage in full swing, this is how smart design is keeping demand for the printed word alive … ... READ MORE

Innovative libraries delivering good design - The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) has today announced the five winners of its inaugural Library Design Awards 2017 ... READ MORE

The library of the future? It's digital ... READ MORE


LIBRARIES & SOCIETY

7 Reasons Libraries Are Essential, Now More Than Ever. READ MORE

Should a public library be more community focused? – Interview with Jan Holmquist. READ MORE

4 important things users want from a library (and how to offer them) READ MORE

What Part Do Libraries Play In The Future Of Learning? READ MORE


LIBRARY & DIGITAL MARKETING

9 Vital Ways Facebook is the Best Partner for Libraries. READ MORE

Librarians: Digital Marketing Needs Your Skills. READ MORE


LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCE EDUCATION



LIBRARY & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY




Timothy Cole Wins 2017 LITA/OCLC Kilgour Research Award - Timothy Cole, Head of the Mathematics Library and Professor of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, has been selected as the recipient of the 2017 Frederick G. Kilgour Award for Research in Library and Information Technology. READ MORE

Top Library Automation Software Products READ MORE

How Mobile Technology Changes the Library Experience - The library experience of today is greatly different from that of even 15 years ago, and mobile technology is the leading contributor to these changes. In response, public and college libraries are using mobile technology to increasingly enhance the user experience. By embracing the many growing capabilities of mobile technologies, libraries provide better service to their users in many different ways. Here are just some of those ways. READ MORE

University Libraries Collaborate on Web Discoverability Project - Stanford and Cornell are leading library efforts to help machines understand bibliographic information so it will be searchable on the Web. KNOW MORE

Top Library Tech Trends - Tech leaders recommend the tools and resources your library can adopt now and in the near future. From virtual reality to gamification to security techniques, libraries are using the latest technology to engage patrons, increase privacy, and help staffers do their jobs. American Libraries spoke to library tech leaders—members of the Library and Information Technology Association’s popular Top Tech Trends panel from the 2017 Midwinter Meeting & Exhibits—to get the apps, devices, software, and best practices that you can adopt for your library right now and in the near future. READ MORE

Library Systems Report 2017: Competing visions for technology, openness, and workflow  - The library technology industry has entered a new phase: business consolidation and technology innovation. Development of products and services to support the increasingly complex work of libraries remains in an ever-decreasing number of hands. Not only have technology-focused companies consolidated themselves, they have become subsumed within higher-level organizations with broad portfolios of diverse business activities. The survivors of this transformed industry now bear responsibility to deliver innovation from their amassed capacity. Modern web-based systems delivering traditional library automation and discovery capabilities are now merely table stakes. Real progress depends on building out these platforms to support the new areas of service emerging within each type of library. READ MORE

Online Teaching Skills for Library Workers - Design for Learning: 21st Century Online Teaching and Learning Skills for Library Workers (D4L) is a training program designed to enable library workers to transfer their in-person teaching skills to the online environment. READ MORE


LIBRARY CIRCULATION



LS & IT MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS



REFERENCE SERVICE



RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



REVIEWS--BOOK JOURNAL DATABASE SOFTWARE ILS ETC



SUBJECT HEADINGS




SEE ALSO

ARTICLE AUTHOR

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Written 2017-04-22

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Friday, October 6, 2017

What are the three levels of management?



QUESTION

What are the three levels of management? (What are the three levels of management in libraries)

(a) Top, middle, and bottom

(b) Top, middle, and lower

(c) First, second, and third

(d) Primary, secondary, and tertiary

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers - LIS Quiz

ANSWER

(b) Top, middle, and lower

The three levels of management are Top, Middle, and  Lower level (First-line managers/Operational)

LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT

The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and workforce increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories: 
  • Top level / Administrative level 
  • Middle level / Executory 
  • Lower level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers

LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT IN LIBRARIES

Managers can be categorized in a number of ways.  Most commonly, we think of them in vertical hierarchy. They usually work at three levels, viz. Top, Middle and Lower level of the organization. The Managers at top or nearer to the top have broader responsibilities and authority than those at lower levels.  According to Stueart and Moran, various organisations including libraries have three levels of management as under:
  • Top Management
  • Middle Management
  • Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

Top Management

It includes directors, associate directors and assistant directors in the large libraries. They are responsible to set policies for the entire organisation and are responsible for its overall management.  They act as leaders and have wide powers as wells responsibilities.

Middle Management 

They are in–charge of specific sub-units of the organization. In the libraries, they are heads of the department or Branch Librarians. Their responsibilities are confirmed to the successful functioning of the department concerned. They also serve as liaisons between top management and supervisors.

Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

They act as supervisors of the junior staff and lead the activities of individual workers in carrying out the day to day work of the organisation/library. These managers implement the procedures and processes that allow their units to work effectively and efficiently.

But the above mentioned hierarchy in the management is being distributed more widely throughout the organizations these days. This change can be seen in all types of organisations including libraries and information centres. The emphasis is being given to team work now-a-days.


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  • Written: 2017-10-07

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Thursday, October 5, 2017

Management

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
MANAGEMENT  Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization.

Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) and Master of Business Administration (MBA.) and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management (DM), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), or the PhD in Business Administration or Management.

Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:

  • Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors, a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization, set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers provide direction to the middle managers who report to them.
  • Middle managers, examples of which would include branch managers, regional managers and section managers, provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
  • Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work.
In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.

LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT

The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories:
  • Top level / Administrative level
  • Middle level / Executory
  • Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board.

These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.

Top 

The top or senior layer of management consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. Different organizations have various members in their C-suite, which may include a Chief Financial Officer, Chief Technology Officer, and so on. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the operations of the entire organization. They set a "tone at the top" and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the overall direction of the organization. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Senior managers are accountable to the shareholders, the general public and to public bodies that oversee corporations and similar organizations. Some members of the senior management may serve as the public face of the organization, and they may make speeches to introduce new strategies or appear in marketing.

Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding of competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for implementing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and shareholder communication.

Middle 

Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance.

Middle management is the midway management of a categorized organization, being secondary to the senior management but above the deepest levels of operational members. An operational manager may be well-thought-out by middle management, or may be categorized as non-management operate, liable to the policy of the specific organization. Efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization, since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.

Their functions include:
  • Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.
  • Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.
  • Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.
  • Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.
Lower 

Lower managers include supervisors, section leaders, forepersons and team leaders. They focus on controlling and directing regular employees. They are usually responsible for assigning employees' tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring the quality and quantity of production and/or service, making recommendations and suggestions to employees on their work, and channeling employee concerns that they cannot resolve to mid-level managers or other administrators. First-level or "front line" managers also act as role models for their employees. In some types of work, front line managers may also do some of the same tasks that employees do, at least some of the time. For example, in some restaurants, the front line managers will also serve customers during a very busy period of the day.

Front-line managers typically provide:
  • Training for new employees
  • Basic supervision
  • Motivation
  • Performance feedback and guidance
Some front-line managers may also provide career planning for employees who aim to rise within the organization.


LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT IN LIBRARIES

Managers can be categorized in a number of ways.  Most commonly, we think of them in vertical hierarchy. They usually work at three levels, viz. Top, Middle and Lower level of the organization. The Managers at top or nearer to the top have broader responsibilities and authority than those at lower levels.  According to Stueart and Moran, various organisations including libraries have three levels of management as under:
  • Top Management
  • Middle Management
  • Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

Top Management

It includes directors, associate directors and assistant directors in the large libraries. They are responsible to set policies for the entire organisation and are responsible for its overall management.  They act as leaders and have wide powers as wells responsibilities.

Middle Management 

They are in–charge of specific sub-units of the organization. In the libraries, they are heads of the department or Branch Librarians. Their responsibilities are confirmed to the successful functioning of the department concerned. They also serve as liaisons between top management and supervisors.

Lower Management or First Line Supervisors

They act as supervisors of the junior staff and lead the activities of individual workers in carrying out the day to day work of the organisation/library. These managers implement the procedures and processes that allow their units to work effectively and efficiently.
But the above mentioned hierarchy in the management is being distributed more widely throughout the organizations these days. This change can be seen in all types of organisations including libraries and information centres. The emphasis is being given to team work now-a-days.


DID YOU KNOW

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article. 

REFERENCES
  1. Wikipedia. Management. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management (accessed October 10, 2017)
  2. Levels of management. Management Study Guide http://managementstudyguide.com/management_levels.htm (accessed October 10, 2017)

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  • Written: 2017-10-06 

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