Wednesday, September 20, 2017

In which year the book Five Laws of Library Science was published?

(a) 1928

(b) 1931

(c) 1932

(d) 1933

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

ANSWER

(b) 1931

Five laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931.

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Sunday, September 17, 2017

What is FRBR?

(a) A content designation tool

(b) A data model

(c) A cataloging code or standard

(d) All of above

(e) None of above

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

ANSWER

(e) None of above

FRBR is neither A Content Designation Tool, neither A Data Model nor a Cataloging Code or Standard. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogs and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. 


SOURCE
  • Library of Congress

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AUTHOR / COMPILER

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Written 2017-09-07

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Saturday, September 16, 2017

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?

DID YOU KNOW IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE

Important information and facts to remember covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of pieces of information in LIS will act not only as a ready reference knowledge bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world.

Did you know in LIS mentions and links to important information and facts which are provided as answers to the questions given in the article Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

A Featured LIS - Did You Know? appears first with a link to the original blog post for the question.

A syllabus is provided then, which divides the whole LIS field into XI units.

This is followed by Libary and Information Science - Did You Know? which are grouped under different units.

Contents

  • Featured LIS - Did You Know?
  • Library and Information Science Syllabus
  • Library and Information Science - Did You Know?


FEATURED LIS - DID YOU KNOW?

LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SYLLABUS

Unit I - Information and its Communication
  • Information, Information Science, Information Society 
  • Information as a Resource / Commodity 
  • Information Transfer Cycle--Generation, Collection, Storage, and Dissemination 
  • Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-Economic Development, Technology transfer
  • Communication--Channel, Barriers 
  • Intellectual Property Rights--Concept, Copyright, Censorship--Print and Non-print Media 
  • Library and Information Policy at the National Level
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
  • Laws of Library Science 
  • Library Resource Sharing and Networking 
  • Library Movement and Library Legislation 
  • Library Extension Services
  • Library and Information Science Education
  • Library and Information Profession
  • Library Associations in India, UK, and the USA, and other countries--ILA, IASLIC, IATLIS, SIS, LA, ASLIB, SLA and ALA
  • Library Associations OrganizationS at International Level--FID, IFLA, and UNESCO, etc.
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources
  • Sources of Information--Primary, Secondary and Tertiary--Documentary and Non-documentary
  • Reference Sources--Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources, Biographical sources, Year Books/Almanacs, Directories and Handbooks, Statistical (salient features and evaluation)
  • Bibliographical Sources--Bibliographies, Union Catalogues, Indexing and Abstracting Journals (salient features and evaluations)
  • E-documents, E-books, E-journals
  • Databases--Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text--Evaluation
Unit IV - Reference and Information Services
  • Reference and Information Services, Referral Service
  • Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest Service, Trend Report
  • Online Services, Translation Services, Reprographic Services
Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
  • Organization/Management of Knowledge/Information
  • Modes of formation of subjects
  • Library Classification--Cannon and Principles
  • Library Classification Schemes--DDC, UDC, CC, LCC, etc.
  • Library Cataloguing--Cannons and Principles
  • Library Cataloguing Codes--CCC, AACR-II, RDA, etc.
  • Bibliographic Records--International Standards--ISBD, MARC, CCF, BIBFRAME
  • Indexing--Pre-coordinate, Post-coordinate
  • Vocabulary Control--Thesaurus, List of Subject Headings, LCSH
  • Databases--Search Strategies, Boolean Operators
  • Knowledge Management
Unit VI - Library Management
  • Management--Principles, Functions, School of Thought
  • Planning, Organization Structure
  • Decision making
  • System Study--Analysis, Evaluation, and Design
  • Collection Development--Books, Serials, Non-book Materials--Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP)
  • Human Resources Management--Manpower Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation, Delegation of Authority
  • Financial Management--Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost Benefit Analysis
  • PERT, CPM
  • Library Buildings and Equipment
  • Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centers and Services
  • Marketing Information Product and Services
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
Unit VII - Computers and Information Technology
  • Information Technology--Components; Impact of IT on Society
  • Computers--Hardware, Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices
  • Telecommunication--Transmission media, Switching systems, Bandwidth, Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication
  • Fax, Email, Tele conferencing / video conferencing, Bulletin Board Service, Teletext, Videotex, Voice Mail
  • Networking--Concepts, Topologies, Types--LAN, MAN, WAN
  • Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia, 
  • Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnections (OSI)
Unit VIII - Information Systems and LIS Organizations and Networks
  • Library Automation--Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware, and Software Selection, OPAC
  • Networks--ERNET, NICNET, DELNET, JANET, BLAISE, OCLC, INFLIBNET, 
  • INTERNET--Components, Services, Browsing--Web Browsers, Search Engines, Meta-Data, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • National and International Information Systems--NISSAT, NASSDOC, INSDOC, DESIDOC, INIS, AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC, etc.
Unit IX - Research Methodology
  • Types of Research--Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary
  • Research Design
  • Scientific Method, Hypothesis, Data Collection, Sampling
  • Methods of Research--Historical, Descriptive, Case Study, Survey, Comparative and Experimental
  • Statistical Methods, Data Analysis
  • Report Writing
  • Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services
  • Bibliometrics
Unit X - Libraries and its Users
  • Types of Libraries--National, Public, Academic, and Special--Objectives, structures, and functions
  • Digital Libraries (Concept)
  • Virtual Libraries (Concept) 
  • Types of Users, User's Studies, User's Education 
  • Role of UGC in the Growth and Development of libraries and information centers in institutes of Higher Education in India, Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF).
  • Growth and development of libraries and information centers in different countries
Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics
  • Miscellaneous topics in LIS not covered by contents of Units I-X. 


LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE - DID YOU KNOW?

Click the questions to view Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog article of the question with the answer and further study references.


Unit I - Information and its Communication
Unit II - LIS Laws, Legislation, Education, and Profession
Unit III - Reference and Information Sources

Unit IV - Reference and Information Services

Unit V - Information and Knowledge Organization and Management
Unit VI - Library Management

Unit VII - Computers and Information Technology

Unit VIII - Information Systems and LIS Organizations and Networks

Unit IX - Research Methodology

Unit X - Libraries and its Users

Unit XI - Miscellaneous LIS Topics



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ARTICLE AUTHOR

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Written 2017-09-17

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Saturday, September 9, 2017

Five Laws of Library Science

Five Laws of Library Science
Five Laws of Library Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science

FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE  The Five laws of library science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931.

These laws are:
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his / her book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.
These laws of Library Science are the "fundamental laws" of Library Science. These are applicable to any problem in the areas of library science, library service, and library practice. These laws are like pot containing oceans. Prior to their enunciation, the subject of Library Science had no philosophy. These laws gave a philosophical base, guaranteeing an everlasting future to the subject of library science, the profession of librarianship, and the use of libraries. These laws have provided a scientific approach to the subject of library science. Even though S.R. Ranganathan proposed the Five Laws of Library Science before the advent of the digital age, they are still valid and equally relevant today. 

Note
  • Corollary of the Fourth Law of Library Science is "Save the time of the staff"
  • In the present day context, the term "book" should be used in a broader context to mean a "Resource".




Five Laws of Library Science: Contents


  • First Law: Books Are For Use
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Location
      • Library Hours
      • Library Building and Furniture
      • Book Selection Policy
      • Library Techniques
      • Publicity
      • Library Staff
      • Reference Service
  • Second Law: Every Reader His/Her Book
    • Implications / Obligations
      • Obligations of the State
      • Obligation of the Library Authority
      • Obligation of Library Staff
      • Obligation of the Reader
  • Third Law: Every Book Its Reader
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Book Selection
      • Shelf Arrangement
      • Easy Accessibility
      • Cataloging
      • Reference Service
      • Publicity
      • Extension Service
  • Fourth Law: Save The Time Of The Reader
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Location
      • Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging
      • Stack-Room Guides
      • Issue and Return
      • Reference Service
      • Documentation Service
      • Library Staff
  • Fifth Law: The Library Is A Growing Organism
    • Implications
      • Balanced Growth
      • Casting Off the Old (Obsolete) and Preserving Valuable Books
      • Choice of a Classification Scheme
      • Choice of a Catalog Code
      • Modernization
      • Staff
      • Library Building - Provision for Future
      • Safeguards
  • Five Laws of Library Science - S.R. Ranganathan (Digitized Book)
  • Variant of Five Laws of Library Science
  • Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities
  • Five Laws of Library Science Infographic


FIRST LAW: BOOKS ARE FOR USE

A book is a guide, a friend, and a philosopher. A writer writes a book to communicate his thoughts. The primary purpose of writing, therefore, is that the thought it contains should be communicated. To do so it is necessary to put the books for use. The first law, therefore, truly demands that all efforts should be made to ensure that all the books kept in the library are used because it is created for use. The first law "Books are for use" places emphasis on the use of books rather than storage. Books were once kept in closed access in order to prevent theft, but this discouraged free use and prevented loaning. The first law of library science "books are for use" means that books in libraries are not meant to be shut away from its users.

The first law constitutes the basis for the library services. Dr. Ranganathan observed that books were often chained to prevent their removal and that the emphasis was on storage and preservation rather than use. He did not reject the notion that preservation and storage were important, but he asserted that the purpose of such activities was to promote use. Without user access to materials, there is little value in these items. By emphasizing use, Dr. Ranganathan refocused the attention of the field to access-related issues, such as the library's location, loan policies, hours and days of operation, as well as the quality of staffing and mundane matters like library furniture, temperature control, and lighting.

Implications
  1. Open Access - Open access of books enhance their use. In this system, every reader is allowed to go to the shelves and choose the book of his interest. In case he does not find the desired book of his interest, he can choose some other from the shelves.
  2. Location - A library should be situated near the central place. If it as an institutional library, then it should be situated near the center of the institutional complex. If it is a public library then it should be in the center of the city.
  3. Library Hours - The first law demands that a library should be kept open for long hours, and during the hours which suits to its patrons most.
  4. Library Building and Furniture - There should be a functional library building with pleasant, natural, and electrical light, soothing interior, good looking furniture, comfortable chairs, etc.
  5. Book Selection Policy - Books should be purchased which are relevant to the needs of the readers. Books should be attractive such as it fills the reader with pleasure.
  6. Library Techniques - Proper cataloging and classification of books are essential for promoting the use of books. 
  7. Publicity - The First Law demands wide publicity of each and every book of the library. For example, the librarian can bring out the list of new additions and latest arrivals through the Current Awareness Service (CAS) or Selective Dissemination of Information Services (SDI).
  8. Library Staff - A library cannot come up to the expectation of the first law unless its staff is attentive and cheerful, and cares for the books and readers. Readers should be looked upon as customers. Some readers are shy and are not informed about the complex library techniques. The library staff should help such users to find their desired book. It will not only satisfy readers but also enhance library's use.
  9. Reference Service - Reference service aims to establish the right contact between the right reader and right book at the right time. A collection of library resources would not be used fully unless the reference librarian makes effort to help the users to exploit the resources of the library. This personal service will lead to the greater use of books.

SECOND LAW: EVERY READER HIS / HER BOOK

The second law of library science is "Every Reader His / Her Book". This law implies that the "books are for use of all" or "books for all." The Second Law stressed on the democratization of the library where every reader has the equal right to get the book of his / her interest. The second law fixed some responsibilities or obligations of the state, the library authority, the library staff, and the readers. A library should serve all patrons, no matter their age, race, or economic status.

This law suggests that every member of the community should be able to obtain materials needed. Dr. Ranganathan felt that all individuals from all social environments were entitled to library service and that the basis of library use was education, to which all were entitled. These entitlements were not without some important obligations for both libraries/librarians and library patrons. Librarians should have excellent first-hand knowledge of the people to be served. Collections should meet the special interests of the community, and libraries should promote and advertise their services extensively to attract a wide range of readers. 

The second law of library science "every reader his/her book" means that librarians serve a wide collection of patrons, acquire literature to fit a vast collection of needs, do not judge what specific patrons choose to read. Everyone has different tastes and differences and we should respect that.

The possible absence of a physical knowledge storage object doesn’t dilute the power of Ranganathan’s second principle; it is certainly relevant to media in all forms including the Internet.

Implications / Obligations
  1. Obligations of the State - When we say "Every Reader His / Her Book" or "Books for All", the state or government automatically comes in picture. The state has a certain obligation to its citizens and one of these is to provide equal opportunity to read. Ranganathan has discussed obligations of the state under three head. (i) Finance--providing finance by giving grants and by levying library cess (Ranganathan's choice), (ii) Legislation--enacting library legislation, and (iii) Coordination--of activities to ensure "Books for All"
  2. Obligation of the Library Authority - The second law has something to say to library authorities in respect to the selection of books and staff. A library has limited finance. It is therefore desirable to know the requirements of the readers before selecting the books. Similarly, library authority should select staff for their library with professional competence and missionary zeal.
  3. Obligation of Library Staff - Library staff should be cooperative and service minded. Library staff should form a bridge between readers and books, only then every reader will have his/her book. When a reader enters a library, the library staff should approach him with a helping hand. Second Law strongly advocates user education program in libraries.
  4. Obligation of the Reader - The Second Law expects the readers also to discharge some responsibilities. Readers should be disciplined and follow rules and regulations. Readers should restrain from cutting pages from books, keeping books beyond the due date, etc. All such acts amount to keeping other readers away from their books.

THIRD LAW: EVERY BOOK ITS READER

The Third Law prescribes Every Book its Reader. The emphasis is on the book. This law desires that every book in a library must find its reader. It implies that there should be maximum use of books by their users.

This principle is closely related to the second law, but it focuses on the item itself, suggesting that each item in a library has an individual or individuals who would find that item useful. Dr. Ranganathan argued that the library could devise many methods to ensure that each item finds its appropriate reader. One method involved the basic rules for access to the collection, most notably the need for open shelving.

The third law of library science "every book its reader" means a library's books have a place in the library even if a smaller demographic might choose to read it.

 It is, therefore, necessary to adopt measures to ensure successful implementation of the demand of the Third Law. The factors that may be kept in view in this regard have been discussed below:

Implications
  1. Open Access - It is one of the most effective ways to ensure that the maximum number of books are seen by the readers. It also happens sometimes that the reader to the shelves in search of a book and in the process of search select many more books.
  2. Book Selection - Give full weightage to the tastes and requirements of the clientele of the library. Difficulties of the Third Law can be minimized by adopting a well-balanced book selection policy. If right books are selected it will definitely find its readers
  3. Shelf Arrangement - If the books are arranged so that the subjects get arranged according to the degree of mutual relationship, then each book would have a higher probability of getting its readers.
  4. Easy Accessibility - Books should be placed within easy reach of the readers. It has been observed that the books within the comfortable reach of the readers are most frequently used. For easy accessibility, shelves should not be higher than 6.5 ft.
  5. Cataloging - Proper cataloging of books is very important as even though there may be well planned and arranged books on the shelves but they are incapable merely by itself. Series entry and cross-reference entries are highly useful in drawing the attention of the readers. Analytical entries increase the chance of a composite book getting its reader.
  6. Reference Service - A reference librarian should know about the world of books and try to find out a reader for every one of these. The reference librarian should act as a canvassing agent for each book.
  7. Publicity - Publicity is a very powerful weapon to attract readers to the library and thereby to increase the chances of every book to find its reader. For example, the arrival of new books may be brought to the notice of the readers by displaying them, near the entrance of the library, or by communicating the readers through an e-newsletter, or broadcasting information about them through the Twitter handle of the library.
  8. Extension Service - The library attract readers by converting itself into a cultural and social center. A library does this by organizing exhibitions, musical concerts, a magic show, celebration of local and national festivals, etc. Oncle the people come to these functions, then the library can make an attempt to bring books and readers together.

FOURTH LAW: SAVE THE TIME OF THE READER

The Fourth Law says "Save the Time of the Reader." A library user must be assumed a busy person. It is essential to keep the reader satisfied and a reader is satisfied most if his/her time is saved, i.e., if he gets the needed service in minimum possible time.

This law is a recognition that part of the excellence of library service is its ability to meet the needs of the library user efficiently. To this end, Dr. S.R. Ranganathan recommended the use of appropriate business methods to improve library management. He observed that centralizing the library collection in one location provided distinct advantages. He also noted that excellent staff would not only include those who possess strong reference skills, but also strong technical skills in cataloging, cross-referencing, ordering, accessioning, and the circulation of materials.

The fourth law of library science "save the time of the user" means that all patrons should be able to easily locate the material they desire quickly and efficiently.

Implications
  1. Open Access - In a closed access of books time is wasted unnecessarily. In open access, the time of the readers is saved. If open access is not there then the reader has to make the choice of the books through the searching of the library catalog. Then the reader requests the library staff the book which he has searched in the catalog. The staff searches the required book and if the staff is not able to trace the book, then the reader again needs to search the catalog. These problems can be avoided if open access is provided where the readers can themselves go to the shelves to search their book.
  2. Location - The location of the library is of great importance. It must be centrally located so that it is conveniently accessible to the community served. For an institutional library, it should be in the center of the institution, for a public library it should be in the center of the city. Centrally located library saves the times of the users in visiting it.
  3. Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging - Proper classification schemes should be used in the library. Books should be arranged on shelves according to the classification number. Regular shelf rectification is also essential. In order to save the time of the readers, the library catalog should aim to provide different approaches to the users. It should include analytical entries for composite books.
  4. Stack-Room Guides - To save the time of the reader, the library should provide an efficient system of stack room guides. It may be quite useful to keep it at the entrance of the stack room, the whole plan of the room indicating the position of the book racks and classes of books in them.
  5. Issue and Return - Most readers want to read the book at home. For this, the library has to issue the books to the readers. Time-saving techniques for circulation to books should be used so that the user has not to spend more time in getting the book issued (or returned).
  6. Reference Service - The reference staff establishes a contact between the book and the reader by providing Reference Service and Long Range Reference Services, thereby saving the time of the reader.
  7. Documentation Service - A substantial time of readers is wasted in the literature search. The library should, therefore, undertake comprehensive or selective, as needed be, documentation services including SDI service to save the time of the reader.
  8. Library Staff - Library staff should be cooperative. They should help the readers to find their document keeping in mind the message of the Fourth Law, i.e., to Save the Time of the Reader.

FIFTH LAW: THE LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM

The Fifth Law is "The Library is a Growing Organism." A library is a social institution and it will keep growing like an organism. A library will grow in terms of documents, readers, and staff. The nature of organic growth can be either growth as a body of a child or growth as of the body of an adult. The growth of a new library will correspond to that of a child growing in all aspects. In case of a service library, once its growth has reached the adult stage, the growth would be in terms of replacing old books by new books and new users will continuously replace old users.

This law focused more on the need for internal change than on changes in the environment itself. Dr. Ranganathan argued that library organizations must accommodate growth in staff, the physical collection, and patron use. This involved allowing for growth in the physical building, reading areas, shelving, and in space for the catalog.

The fifth law of library science "the library is a growing organism" means that a library should be a continually changing institution, never static in its outlook. Books, methods, and the physical library should be updated over time.

Implications
  1. Balanced Growth - The collection should grow in all the areas of subjects keeping in view the needs and requirements of all the readers, as far as possible.
  2. Casting Off the Old (Obsolete) and Preserving Valuable Books - Weed out old, obsolete, and unused books in order to provide space for new additions. However, librarians should take necessary steps to preserve valuable materials.
  3. Choice of a Classification Scheme - We should use a scheme of classification, which is able to meet the onslaught of knowledge reasonably well.
  4. Choice of a Catalog Code - We should use a catalog code which is able to provide treatment to all kinds of library materials yet acquired as well as new materials likely to be acquired in future.
  5. Modernization - Libraries may have to think of computerization of the various housekeeping jobs like the acquisition, circulation, cataloging, etc.
  6. Staff - When a library grows, sanctioned staff at some stage become inadequate. So at that time an increase of staff should be considered. Any standard for staffing should be accepted by the libraries, then the library would be able to get the requisite staff.
  7. Library Building -- Provision for Future - While planning and designing a library building, there should be a provision of the expansion of the building, both horizontally as well as vertically. Library should provide adequate space for present as well as the future.
  8. Safeguards - As the number of readers increase, the problem of theft of books from the library becomes acute, especially in open access system. So, it is necessitates some safeguards, such as, entrance and exit should be from one gate, windows should be grilled, and all readers should be checked before leaving. 

FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE - S. R. RANGANATHAN (DIGITIZED BOOK)




VARIANTS OF FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

Librarian Michael Gorman (past president of the American Library Association, 2005–2006), and Walt Crawford recommended the following laws in addition to Ranganathan's five in Future Libraries: Dreams, Madness, and Realities [American Library Association, 1995], (p. 8) Gorman later repeated them in his small book, Our Singular Strengths [American Library Association, 1998].
  1. Libraries serve humanity.
  2. Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
  3. Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
  4. Protect free access to knowledge.
  5. Honor the past and create the future.
In 2004, librarian Alireza Noruzi recommended applying Ranganathan's laws to the Web in his paper, "Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web":
  1. Web resources are for use.
  2. Every user has his or her web resource.
  3. Every web resource its user.
  4. Save the time of the user.
  5. The Web is a growing organism.
In 2008, librarian Carol Simpson recommended that editing be done to Ranganathan's law due to media richness. The following were:
  1. Media are for use.
  2. Every patron his information.
  3. Every medium its user.
  4. Save the time of the patron.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

REORDERING RANGANATHAN: SHIFTING USER BEHAVIORS, SHIFTING PRIORITIES

An OCLC Research Report by: Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D., and Ixchel Faniel, Ph.D.

This report suggests that Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science can be reordered and reinterpreted to reflect today's library resources and services, as well as the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them.

Although authors Senior Research Scientist Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Associate Research Scientist Ixchel Faniel believe Ranganathan's five laws are still relevant today, their intent is to help evolve both the work done by librarians and the perceptions of libraries and librarians. By changing how we think about the five laws in terms of interpretation and order of importance, Lynn and Ixchel hope to reflect the current resources and services available for use and the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them.  

The objective of this publication is to provide a timely and relevant context for Ranganathan’s laws that today’s librarians, library researchers and information scientists can refer to as they think about making changes in practice and developing agendas for future research.

Highlights
  • Today's library users challenge librarians to move from the simple declaration of "save the time of the reader"; meeting today's users' needs requires embedding library systems and services into their existing workflows
  • Our modern-day rephrasing of "every person his or her book" is know your community and its needs
  • The core meaning of "books are for use" is still about access; however, our interpretation focuses on developing the physical and technical infrastructure needed to deliver materials
  • Our interpretation of "every book its reader" focuses on increasing the discoverability, access and use of resources within users’ existing workflows
  • We agree that "a library is a growing organism" and propose growing users' share of attention





FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE INFOGRAPHIC





USED FOR
  • Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science

REFERENCES
  1. Ranganathan, S. R. (Shiyali Ramamrita), 1892-1972. The Five Laws of Library Science; Edward Goldston, Ltd.: London, 1931.
  2. Rubin, Richard E. Foundations of Library and Information Science. 2nd ed.; Neal-Schuman Publishers: New York, 2004.
  3. Five laws of library science. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_laws_of_library_science (accessed September 10, 2017)
  4. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ixchel M. Faniel. 2014. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research.http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-reordering-ranganathan-2014.pdf.
  5. USC University of South California, Marshall School of Business. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Library Science. http://librarysciencedegree.usc.edu/resources/infographics/dr-s-r-ranganathans-five-laws-of-library-science/ (accessed September 17, 2017)
  6. Aspe, Ron. Do the Original 5 Laws of Library Science Hold Up in a Digital World? http://blog.lucidea.com/do-the-original-5-laws-of-library-science-hold-up-in-a-digital-world  (accessed September 20, 2017)

SEE ALSO

ARTICLE AUTHOR

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Last Updated: 2017-09-20
  • Written: 2017-09-10

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What is referred to raw data when they are processed and converted into meaningful form?

(a) Knowledge

(b) Information

(c) Processed data

(d) Organized data

Library and Information Science Questions and Answers
Library and Information Science Questions and Answers

ANSWER

(b) Information

When raw data are processed and converted into meaningful form then it is referred as Information.


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  • Written 2017-09-10

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Thursday, September 7, 2017

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS  Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR /ˈfɜːrbər/) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogs and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloging standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).
User Tasks

The ways that people can use FRBR data have been defined as follows: to find entities in a search, to identify an entity as being the correct one, to select an entity that suits the user's needs, or to obtain an entity (physical access or licensing)

FRBR Entities

FRBR comprises groups of entities:

  • Group 1 entities are work, expression, manifestation, and item (WEMI). They represent the products of intellectual or artistic endeavor.
  • Group 2 entities are person, family and corporate body, responsible for the custodianship of Group 1’s intellectual or artistic endeavor.
  • Group 3 entities are subjects of Group 1 or Group 2’s intellectual endeavor, and include concepts, objects, events, places.

Group 1 entities are the foundation of the FRBR model:

  • Work is a "distinct intellectual or artistic creation." For example, Beethoven's Ninth Symphony apart from all ways of expressing it is a work. When we say, "Beethoven's Ninth is magnificent!" we generally are referring to the work.
  • Expression is "the specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is 'realized.'" An expression of Beethoven's Ninth might be each draft of the musical score he writes down (not the paper itself, but the music thereby expressed).
  • Manifestation is "the physical embodiment of an expression of a work. As an entity, manifestation represents all the physical objects that bear the same characteristics, in respect to both intellectual content and physical form." The performance the London Philharmonic made of the Ninth in 1996 is a manifestation. It was a physical embodiment even if not recorded, though of course manifestations are most frequently of interest when they are expressed in a persistent form such as a recording or printing. When we say, "The recording of the London Philharmonic's 1996 performance captured the essence of the Ninth," we are generally referring to a manifestation.
  • Item is "a single exemplar of a manifestation. The entity defined as item is a concrete entity." Each copy of the 1996 pressings of that 1996 recording is an item. When we say, "Both copies of the London Philharmonic's 1996 performance of the Ninth are checked out of my local library," we are generally referring to items.

Group 1 entities are not strictly hierarchical, because entities do not always inherit properties from other entities. Despite initial positive assessments of FRBR clarifying the thoughts around the conceptual underpinnings of works, there has been later disagreement about what the Group 1 entities actually mean. The distinction between Works and Expressions is also unclear in many cases.

Relationships

In addition to the relationships between Group 1 and Groups 2 and 3 discussed above, there are many additional relationships covering such things as digitized editions of a work to the original text, and derivative works such as adaptations and parodies, or new texts which are critical evaluations of a pre-existing text. FRBR is built upon relationships between and among entities. "Relationships serve as the vehicle for depicting the link between one entity and another, and thus as the means of assisting the user to ‘navigate’ the universe that is represented in a bibliography, catalogue, or bibliographic database." Examples of relationship types include, but are not limited to:

Equivalence relationships

Equivalence relationships exist between exact copies of the same manifestation of a work or between an original item and reproductions of it, so long as the intellectual content and authorship are preserved. Examples include reproductions such as copies, issues, facsimiles and reprints, photocopies, and microfilms.

Derivative relationships

Derivative relationships exist between a bibliographic work and a modification based on the work. Examples include:

  • Editions, versions, translations, summaries, abstracts, and digests
  • Adaptations that become new works but are based on old works
  • Genre changes
  • New works based on the style or thematic content of the work

Descriptive relationships

Descriptive relationships exist between a bibliographic entity and a description, criticism, evaluation, or review of that entity, such as between a work and a book review describing it. Descriptive relationships also includes annotated editions, casebooks, commentaries, and critiques of an existing work.


FRBR and RDA

FRBR offers a structure to address user tasks, and FRBR entities and elements translate into RDA as the data elements for bibliographic description and access, and the relationships among entities. RDA combines the FRBR conceptual model with cataloging principles to provide the foundations to build cataloger judgment and better systems for the future. FRBR is not itself a cataloging code. But it demonstrates how users can benefit from a well-structured system designed around the FRBR entities and relationships.


USED FOR
  • FRBR

DID YOU KNOW

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES / SOURCE
  1. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. Wikipedia. Accessed September 7, 2017.
  2. Library of Congress website

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  • Written 2017-07-15

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